If we consider such a group of pathologies as otorhinolaryngological diseases, chronic sinusitis is perhaps the first thing to begin with, because he is one of the most frequent reasons for seeking medical help.
In this inflammation of only one sinus is extremely rare. Polysynusitis is more common, which significantly complicates the life of the patient.
Causes of polyposis and odontogenic sinusitis
The causes of chronic sinusitis are quite diverse in nature.
First of all, this is not fully treated diseases of the respiratory system. This includes illicit therapy with antibacterial drugs.
Another reason can be considered broken nose patency due to foreign bodies, neoplasms, curvature of the septum, etc. For example, sprains in the nose in the form of tumors or polyps can change the mucous membrane, block the nasal passages and eventually provoke chronic polyposis sinusitis.
The disease can cause various allergic reactions leading to edema of the nasal cavity, as well as immune disorders. The likelihood of the described ailment increases with the systematic influence of cigarette smoke and industrial toxins.
Chronic sinusitis in a child is often caused by an increase in adenoids. Also, risk factors for this disease are aspirin hypersensitivity, complications of cystic fibrosis, HIV, and the like. Chronic odontogenic sinusitis can develop due to the presence of carious teeth. This affects the maxillary sinus.
Chronic purulent sinusitis: symptoms, exacerbations and complications
Symptoms of chronic sinusitis in adults and children may be different and depend on the location of the inflammatory focus, as well as the nature of the course of the disease. The first signs of the disease often form against the background of common catarrhal manifestations: a rise in temperature with weakness and malaise. In this case, almost all sinusitis is characterized by a weakening of smell and nasal congestion, often developing only on one side.
Symptoms that may be suspected in a patient of chronic sinusitis can be accompanied by intense dry night cough and sleep disorders. The patient may be troubled by headache or facial pain. Above the inflamed sinuses, skin reddening is noted.
Chronic purulent sinusitis, as well as acute, are characterized by green-yellow, purulent discharge from the nose, sometimes with a trace of blood.
All of these manifestations, of course, can be attributed to the acute form of the described ailment. However, unlike the latter, signs of inflammation in the chronic stage are much less pronounced, and in duration much more.
Also the clinic of this form of the disease is notable in that the symptoms can almost completely disappear for a while, and then arise again. This is respectively remission and exacerbation of chronic sinusitis.
If a patient has a diagnosis of chronic sinusitis, the complications are essentially the same as in the case of an acute variant of the disease. That is, either orbital( phlegmon cells of the orbit, etc.), or intracranial( meningitis, etc.), or relating to other organs and systems( bronchitis, pyelonephritis, etc.).
Treatment of chronic sinusitis with drugs
It would seem that knowing the symptoms of chronic sinusitis and treatment is easy to find. However, this is not quite true. Therapy of the ailment in question can be a very difficult task, because often the microbes present in the sinuses do not react to antibacterial drugs in any way.
The goals for which treatment of chronic sinusitis should be directed are fully understood. First of all, it is necessary to eliminate the root cause of the disease, then create a normal drainage of the sinuses, and simultaneously with it to remove the symptoms and prevent relapse of the disease.
To maximize the effectiveness of this treatment should be comprehensive. Usually, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial drugs are used in combination with immunomodulators and treatment procedures. Medicinal treatment of chronic sinusitis in adults is based on reducing edema of the mucosa and improving the removal of internal contents of the sinuses.
The first thing that is prescribed in this case is local vasoconstrictive drugs: galazoline, naphthysine, sanorin, etc.
With severe allergy, it is necessary to take antihistamines that restore the outflow of mucus from the sinuses. Of anesthetics and anti-inflammatory drugs, Nurofen, Panadol or Aspirin are usually used. Antimicrobial agents are selected individually, taking into account the age, epimetics, the duration of the disease and the sensitivity of the pathogen.
How to treat chronic sinusitis with antibiotics
If the disease was caused by a bacterial infection, then it is good to cure chronic sinusitis with antibiotics. Without them, it is almost impossible to cope with the disease.
With a confirmed diagnosis, prescribe Amoxicillin or preparations based on it( Amoxiclav, Augmentin, etc.), Doxycycline, and also Bactrim or Biseptol. However, not all cases of the disease are caused by bacteria, so immediately take these drugs should not be. First you need to determine the source of the disease.
If the doctor attributed antibacterial drugs, it is important to go through the entire course of therapy to the end. Usually it is 10-14 days. And you need to take the medicine even if the symptoms disappear.
These drugs, despite the fact that they help cope with chronic sinusitis, have certain drawbacks: they lower their own body's immune forces, and this creates a vulnerability to diseases.
How to cure chronic sinusitis: immunomodulators and procedures
One of the directions that allow both to treat chronic sinusitis and prevent its repeated development is an increase in local immunity.
To activate natural body protection forces, so-called immunomodulators are prescribed. Due to this, not only the symptoms of inflammation are eliminated, but also a number of respiratory problems are solved.
To such means it is possible to carry a preparation Sinuforte, in which basis the extract of a plant Cyclamen lies. It does not cause habituation, raises local immunity, facilitates natural cleansing of sinuses from pus and mucus. In the diagnosis of chronic sinusitis, the treatment with the drugs mentioned above is usually supplemented by treatment procedures.
One method of removing pathogenic contents is washing. Thanks to it, the symptoms of inflammation are alleviated and the dosage of antibiotics taken is reduced. The procedure is performed several times a day. It is necessary to act with caution in order not to disturb the anatomical structure of the nasal cavity.
As a washing option, the method of YAMIK can be used, the essence of which is that two catheters are injected into the nasal passages, one antiseptic is given, and with the other, this medicine is sucked off with mucus and pus.
When deciding how to cure chronic sinusitis, do not forget about steam inhalations with hot baths. For such procedures often used different bactericidal and anti-inflammatory herbs, for example, chamomile or sage.
It should be understood that the effect of inhalations is achieved only with the saved outflow of contents from the sinuses. Therefore, in case of severe nasal congestion prior to the procedure, vasoconstrictive drugs should be used. Do not use inhalation with a tendency to bleeding, with a serious condition of the patient, with some allergic and inflammatory diseases, as well as in children under 5 years.
If the patient has symptoms that characterize chronic sinusitis, treatment in adults and children may also include physiotherapy techniques: the use of UHF, microwaves, laser and mud. But with polypous and cystic forms of the disease, such therapy is contraindicated.
Surgical treatment of chronic frontal sinusitis
In the absence of a positive effect on conservative methods of treatment of the described pathology resort to surgical intervention. The most popular operations these days are ultrasound surgery and the endoscopic method.
Classics, relevant and currently, is a puncture. For example, chronic frontal sinusitis can be cured by frontal sinus puncture, and sinusitis - by puncturing the maxillary sinus, etc.
Unfortunately, with 100% probability to prevent the development of the described disease is not possible. However, it is quite real to reduce the severity of manifestations of the disease, as well as prevent the formation of relapses.
For this purpose, it is advisable to carry out the correct treatment of various infections, to fight caries in time, to timely eliminate abnormalities of the nasal cavity and, of course, to strengthen immunity and tempering.