Diseases of the upper respiratory tract are subdivided in the place of localization of the pathological process, its severity and signs of negative consequences. The most unfavorable in its course is chronic pharyngitis in adults: the condition is characterized by a prolonged course with pronounced periods of exacerbations. Pathogenic microflora is present almost constantly, adversely affecting the state of the immune system. Affects the structure of the mucosa, which loses its protective functions, becomes inflamed, grows or vice versa, atrophies. Depending on this, the classification of the forms of the disease is carried out. Gradually, the lymphatic system of the oropharynx is involved in the pathological process. In the lymph nodes, foci of chronic inflammation can form.
The causes of chronic pharyngitis in adults can be factors such as:
- frequent colds, not accompanied by adequate full treatment;
- presence of tonsillitis, carious foci in the oral cavity;
- eating irritating spices and hot food / drinks;
- prolonged smoking of tobacco and abuse of strong alcoholic beverages;
- accommodation in areas with a heavily polluted atmosphere;
- allergic reactions of delayed type;
- gastro-oesophageal reflux disease with the systematic transfer of hydrochloric acid through the esophagus into the larynx;
- professional employment in harmful industries( chemical, metallurgical, food enterprises).
Prevention of chronic pharyngitis in adults is the rejection of bad habits, the use of personal protective equipment when working in harmful environmental conditions, regular visits to the dentist, the proper treatment of colds and GERD.
Chronic catarrhal and granulosa, subatrophic and atrophic, hypertrophic pharyngitis in adults
Chronic adult pharyngitis is divided into stages of its course that have typical clinical symptoms:
- catarrhal chronic pharyngitis develops as a primary form of pathology: acute inflammation with mucosal hypertrophy and lungedema;
- with granulosis chronic pharyngitis develop multiple nodules in the submucosa: the ability to produce a mucous secretion is lost, the patient constantly experiences dryness in the mouth;
- hypertrophic form is characterized by abnormal growth of tissues, which leads to disruption of the swallowing process and a constant sensation of the presence of a foreign body in the throat;
- subatrophic and atrophic chronic pharyngitis are the most dangerous conditions in which there is a high risk of mucosal cell degeneration into cancerous tumors, tissue cells die off.
In catarrhal form, it is important to exclude the adverse factors that cause chronic pharyngitis in adults. It is necessary to refrain from smoking, drinking alcohol and spicy / hot food. If possible, change the place of work, if the previous one is difficult in a polluted atmosphere. It is necessary to exclude the possibility of allergic reactions.
Hypertrophic chronic pharyngitis is characterized by the presence of a severe dry cough with a minimum amount of sputum. There may be an unpleasant taste in the mouth accompanied by an unpleasant odor, which can not be eliminated by regular brushing of the teeth.
The most unfavorable and dangerous form of the disease is atrophic chronic pharyngitis. With this pathology, the mucous membrane is almost completely deformed and loses its protective functions. In places of inflammation, dry crusts can form, which cause harsh attacks of dry cough. When the cough is coughing, the streaks of blood may appear in the sputum. This precedes the state of subatrophic chronic pharyngitis, which is characterized by incomplete necrosis of the mucosa and partial compensation of the protective function by the lymphoid tissue. This increases the lymph nodes, which become dense and painful. Very often atrophic chronic pharyngitis passes into oncological forms with the formation of dense tumors in the oropharynx.
Symptoms of chronic pharyngitis in adults
Symptoms of chronic pharyngitis in adults may include a combination of clinical signs that indicate the course of the inflammatory process in the oropharynx. They can be hidden or pronounced during periods of exacerbation. The most common symptoms of chronic pharyngitis include the following:
- permanent sore throat without visible signs of colds( high body temperature, runny nose, headache and muscle pain, weakness, chills);
- feelings of perspiration and the presence of foreign particles that cause a cough reflex;
- unpleasant odor from the oral cavity, having a putrefactive character;
- swallowing may be difficult and cause pain;
- cough is dry and persistent, after an attack the sore throat is worse.
Symptoms and treatment of chronic pharyngitis in adults largely depend on the form of pathology. So, with catarrhal type of pathology the pain is pronounced, and appears after exposure to unfavorable factors. With atrophic pharyngitis, pain may be completely absent, but the patient complains of a constant sensation of dryness in the mouth and throat.
On examination, inflammation is seen on the back wall of the larynx. They can manifest in the form of hyperemia, swelling of the mucous membrane, foci of granulation and atrophy. At an atrophic and subatrophic form of chronic pharyngitis, crusts and places with hemorrhages against the background of a strong cough reflex can be visually determined. The temperature and blood pressure are normal. The picture of peripheral blood in the general analysis does not change. To exclude oncological diseases, a histological examination of the material taken from the biopsy is necessary.
Exacerbation of chronic pharyngitis during pregnancy
Chronic pharyngitis during pregnancy quite often progresses already in the early stages. This is due to the restructuring of the woman's immune system. There is an excessive immune response, as a result of which there may be an increase in the symptoms of an acute inflammatory process.
When exacerbating chronic pharyngitis, the following symptoms may occur:
- severe sore throat when swallowing fluid and food;
- increase in body temperature to subfebrile indicators;
- headache, weakness, pulling sensations in the muscles;
- dry strong cough with minimal production of phlegm;
- increase and soreness of regional submandibular lymph nodes.
Treatment of chronic pharyngitis in pregnancy should include predominantly local methods of exposure. It can be gargling, inhalation, a copious alkaline drink. Antibiotic therapy is prescribed only if there are indications under constant supervision by the attending physician.
How to treat chronic pharyngitis in adults
General methods of therapy include the exclusion of pathogenic factors of influence. It is necessary to give up smoking, exclude contamination of the atmosphere of the ambient air. It is necessary to refrain from breathing vapors arising from the use of varnishes, paints and other organic compounds. The food should be soft and thoroughly crushed. Drinking and eating should be acceptable temperature. It is useful to use warm milk with honey, alkaline mineral water and juices with a bright orange color. To restore the mucous membrane can be used oil treatment of sea buckthorn, extract from the hips. Decoctions of chemist's chamomile, rosemary and Ledum are widely used for gargling.
If the pathology is associated with heartburn, then therapy is necessary for hyperacid gastritis and gastroesophageal reflux disease. This treatment is best carried out under the supervision of a gastroenterologist. It is necessary to eliminate the infection of Helicobacter pylori.
Specific treatment of chronic pharyngitis in adults
Antibiotic therapy in the specific treatment of chronic pharyngitis in adults is used exclusively during periods of exacerbations of pathology. Indications for the use of antibacterial agents are hyperthermia and an increase in regional lymph nodes. For the correct choice of the agent, a smear from the throat is needed, followed by sowing and detection of sensitivity to antibiotics. Among the drugs of a wide spectrum of action, the most commonly used are Sumamed 250 mg 1 time per course of treatment, Azitral 250 mg twice a day for 3 days, Tsiprolet 500 mg twice a day for 5 days or"Amoxiclav" 1000 mg twice a day for 7 days.
Treatment of chronic pharyngitis in adults includes mandatory intake of antihistamines: "suprastin" 200 mg once a day, "Diazolin" 150 mg twice a day or "Pipolphen" 1 tablet in the morning and evening. All of them are appointed for up to 7 days.
To eliminate the cough reflex to take mucolytic drugs is not effective. It is more expedient to take drugs that suppress the cough reflex. This "Kodelak", "Kodterpin", the herb of thermopsis, "Libexin".
Rinses must be prescribed every 30 minutes. For this you can use a solution of soda, broths of chamomile pharmacy, specialized collections. It is possible to lubricate the throat with lugol solution. This drug is now also presented in the form of a spray.
A local bacteriophage is an excellent remedy. An example is the drug "Lizobakt", which is assigned to 2 tablets every 4 hours for resorption in the oral cavity. For topical application, you can use Bioparox, Cameton, Imudon, Geksoral, IRS-19, Strepsils.
For the period of exacerbation of chronic pharyngitis in adults, a sick leave sheet for a period of 10 to 14 days is provided for treatment. For all this time, bed rest with limited physical activity is assigned. The doctor can recommend the physiotherapeutic effect of ultraviolet radiation, magnetotherapy, laser irradiation.
Treatment of chronic atrophic pharyngitis
Special attention should be paid to the treatment of chronic atrophic pharyngitis, in which there is a high risk of oncological processes. First of all, dispensary observation is necessary in the otolaryngologist. At least once a year, a biopsy is performed with a histological examination of mucosal cells.
The main aspects of the treatment of atrophic chronic pharyngitis include measures aimed at restoring the mucous membrane. Pathogenic factors should be completely ruled out.
Stimulants and modulators are used to form stable immunity. Regular antiviral prophylaxis is performed with the help of such drugs as Arbidol, Lavomax, Anaferon, etc.
Laser irradiation of atrophied mucosa is recommended. Constantly used sea buckthorn oil, compositions with mummies and ginseng roots. They all have a stimulating effect on the cells of the mucosa, which can be completely restored.
Consequences of chronic pharyngitis
In conclusion, it is worth mentioning how the negative effects of chronic pharyngitis can overtake patients in neglected cases. The most formidable complication is laryngeal cancer, which is preceded by an atrophic form of pathology.
Almost all patients with this diagnosis have an altered state of immune defense that is not able to respond adequately to the introduction of pathogens. Often develops concomitant tonsillitis, laryngitis, tracheitis and regional lymphadenitis. Candidiasis can occur in the mucous membranes of the oral cavity.
In the long term, the effects of chronic pharyngitis can be expressed in the development of renal pathology( glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis or amyloidosis), cardiac muscle damage( myocarditis, heart valve defects, endocarditis), rheumatism.