Polyps in the nasal cavity: symptoms and causes

Polyps are common among all diseases of the nose. According to statistics, such an ailment affects 1-5% of people.

With infectious diseases on the mucosa there is active microbial reproduction. This fact causes the detachment of its upper layer of cells. In this case, the person feels the burning and stuffiness of the sense of smell, his voice changes, the mucus appears, which is the result of increased activity of the mucous glands, and exudate( fluid formed by inflammation).

Appropriate treatment against a background of normal immunity after 7-10 days leads to complete recovery. Mucous is fully restored and re-acquires the ability to perform its functions.

An untreated disease is fraught with the transition to a chronic form. Long the current process of inflammation leaves an imprint on local immunity and seriously undermines the strength of the mucous membrane. This fact forces the latter to increase its area in order to perform the functions assigned to it.

There is an increase in connective tissue and, as a consequence, a thickening of the mucosa in the paranasal sinuses, which at a certain point emerges from the sinus opening into the nasal cavity. This is the so-called polyp of the nose.

The formation of polyps in the nose: a disease in adults and children

If you consider how polyps look in the nose, then you can come across different descriptions of these formations. Someone says that they look like a drop, someone compares to a pea, and someone thinks that the sprouts under consideration resemble a fungus in shape. Most authors are inclined to the opinion of the similarity of polyps with grape clusters.

Polyps in the sinuses of the nose are rounded, painless, touch-sensitive and easily moving formations ranging in size from a few millimeters to several centimeters.

Despite the good quality of the process, large formations can significantly hinder breathing, as well as create an obstacle to the normal outflow of the contents of the paranasal sinuses. Ultimately, this will entail inflammatory processes and even a loss of smell. Thus, the prognosis of the disease will be determined by the timeliness of the treatment.

Most often, the disease develops in the adult population. Nevertheless, children are also susceptible to this ailment. Polyps in the nose in adults develop mainly in men.

Causes of polyps in the nose

Various factors can affect the occurrence of polyps in the nose. These include frequent infections and colds, the course of which is accompanied by a runny nose. This also includes chronic sinusitis, i.e.inflammatory lesions of the adnexal nasal sinuses: etmoiditis, sinusitis and frontalitis.

The formation of polyps in the nose is also associated with an allergic rhinitis, which develops as a result of inhalation of house and library dust, or due to contact with pollen of plants, mushroom spores, chromium compounds, household chemicals, as well as animal wool and other allergenicagents.

Significant curvature of the nasal septum, due to which there are difficulties in breathing in the compartment with proliferation of mucous, can also be considered as a cause of polyps in the nose.

A certain role in the formation of the described benign formations is assigned to the pathological reactions of the immune system and the hereditary propensity to this ailment.

Such diseases as Yang syndrome, cystic fibrosis, nasal mastocytosis and aspirin intolerance can also influence the appearance of "grapes" in the olfactory organ.

Polyps in the nose: varieties and stages

Polyps in the nose, the photos of which are located just below, can be of several varieties:

Basically, their division into groups is carried out at the place of formation.

From these positions, "grapes" can be anthrocoanal or ethmoidal.

The first arise mainly from the mucosa of the maxillary sinus and are characterized by a one-sided lesion. Such formations are found mainly in children.

The second affects usually adult people, developing from the mucosa covering the trellis labyrinth. In this case, the process proceeds from both sides relative to the nasal septum.

How polyps look in the nose in the photo can be seen below:

Depending on the sizes that reach the polyps in the nasal cavity, as well as the changes caused by them, three stages differ.

At the first stage of formation, fill only a small area of ​​space inside the nose. This is the easiest stage of development.

The second stage is harder. The proliferation of connective tissue is so great that it covers most of the lumen of the olfactory organ cavity.

And finally the most severe is the third stage, in which the polyps cover the respiratory tract completely.

Signs of polyps: nasal congestion, loss of sensitivity, nasal

One of the first in the clinical picture of this disease appears a feeling of stuffiness of the olfactory organ, accompanied by a prolonged difficult nasal breathing through. The congestion of the nose of the polyp is caused by an overgrown mucosa, which partly or completely closes the lumen of the respiratory tract.

The mucocutaneous glands and mucous secretions are said to be developing mucous glands, as well as the connection of secondary infection.

Sneezing of patients with nasal polyps can be explained by the fact that the cilia, which touch the outgrowths of the mucosa, perceive them as foreign objects, and the body reacts accordingly, trying to get rid of these objects with the help of a protective sneezing reflex.

However, the signs of polyps in the nose lead to a loss of sensitivity to odors. This is due to the proliferation of polypous tissue, which disrupts the work of receptor cells, whose task is to perceive odors.

The result of compression of nerve endings with an increased mucosal mass may be headache. Often the pain is associated with inflammation of the paranasal sinuses. And the oxygen deficiency caused by shortness of breath leads to oxygen starvation of the brain.

Perhaps the most noticeable part in the diagnosis of polyps in the nose symptom is a violation of the voice in the form of nasal. The fact is that the nose takes part in the formation of the voice, and in the case of the ailment, the passage of air through it is disturbed and the person begins to speak "in the nose".

What are the dangerous polyps in the nose: complications of the disease

The question of what are dangerous polyps in the nose, probably interested in everyone who fell ill. And I must say that this interest is fully justified.

Nasal breathing is given to man not by accident. It should always be normal, as it is due to it that the air entering the nasal passage is warmed and moistened, it is due to nasal breathing that this air is cleared of dust, which is then secreted by secretion.

Complications of nasal polyps are reduced to the appearance of diseases from other organs and, first of all, respiratory organs. Because of the developed polyps, a person begins to breathe with his mouth.

In this way, dry and cold raw air passes through the respiratory tract. The result is inflammation of the larynx, pharynx, trachea, as well as acute bronchitis and even pneumonia.

Because the polyps in the nose, the videos about which are presented below, block the paranasal sinuses, they often become the causes of sinusitis:

And as a result of the vasoconstriction and the resulting circulatory disturbance in the tissues of the nasopharynx, the patients suffer from pharyngeal tonsils, proliferateadenoids, there is a sore throat.

Diagnosis: How to determine the polyps in the nose

In practice, ENT doctors can easily identify polyps in the nose and choose appropriate treatment.

The most experienced specialists can even determine the presence of nasal polyps from the appearance of a person. However, in most cases, this feature is not sufficient for accurate diagnosis.

The most effective method used to recognize the described ailment is an instrumental examination, called a back rhinoscope. In addition to this, it helps to diagnose and finger feeling the nasopharynx of the patient.

In order to identify polyps in the nose, the diagnosis may include radiography and computed tomography. These studies are conducted in order to ascertain the extent to which the paranasal sinuses are affected.

In some cases rhinomanometry has to be used to determine the degree of nasal breathing disorder.

Sometimes doctors resort to allergological examination. But only when the allergy was one of the reasons for polypogenesis.