19Feb

Acute and chronic sphenoiditis: causes, signs and treatment

Sphenoiditis is one of the rare forms of sinusitis caused by inflammation of the posterior( sphenoid) sinus of the nasal cavity. This disease and especially the complications caused by it are very dangerous, since in the recesses of the sphenoid bone there are carotid arteries, nerve plexuses and other important tissues. What is sphenoiditis and how to treat it - read in this material.

What is acute sphenoiditis and how to treat it

Acute sphenoiditis is rare and is usually associated with damage to the posterior cells of the trellis labyrinth. The cause of sphenoiditis is the spread of the foci of infection to the sphenoid sinus in acute rhinitis, influenza and other infectious diseases.

Symptoms of sphenoiditis are an acute cold, headache, which is located in the occiput, sometimes in the crown, in the forehead, temples. Often there is a breakdown of the sense of smell, the temperature rises, there is a feeling of fatigue, and sometimes mental depression. With a rhinoscopy, inflammatory puffiness and hyperemia of the mucous membrane of the superior nasal passage and a mucopurulent discharge that flows over the middle shell are seen. At a back rinoscope the pus in a nasopharynx is defined.

After identifying the symptoms of sphenoiditis, treatment is prescribed the same as with acute inflammation of the frontal sinus. To remove puffiness and improve the outflow of the discharge, a small strip of gauze, which is moistened in a 5% solution of cocaine with ephedrine, is injected into the olfactory gap for 1/2 hour several times a day. If a septic condition suddenly appears, intracranial or ophthalmic complications, immediate surgical intervention and the use of antibiotics are required.

Chronic sphenoiditis and its treatment

Chronic sphenoiditis ( inflammation of the main sinus) , proceeds in isolation or in combination with the same lesion of posterior cells of the trellis labyrinth. Etiology and pathogenesis. The causes of the transition of an acute inflammatory process to a chronic form are the same as in other sinuses. Secondary chronic sphenoiditis can develop with lesions of the bone walls with syphilis, tuberculosis or with cysts and neoplasms.

The main symptom of sphenoiditis is headache, which, as a rule, is strictly localized: with a small airway of the sinus - in the region of the crown, and with large sinuses it can also pass to the occipital region. The second symptom of chronic sphenoiditis is a scent from the nose, which only the patient himself feels, those around him do not feel. The third sign is the runoff of the main sinus separating along the anterior wall of the nasopharynx and the posterior pharyngeal wall. With unilateral sphenoiditis, there is a one-sided lateral pharyngitis.

There is often a sharp, precipitous drop in vision, and doctors can not determine its cause. But most often chronic sphenoiditis occurs with a very unexpressed symptomatology.

Treatment of chronic sphenoiditis is usually conserved, as in acute sphenoiditis. Often access to the olfactory gap is achieved by intensified anemia of the mucosa and by catching the nasal mirror of the middle shell outwards. If there are polyps, severe hyperplasia of the middle shell, curvature of the nasal septum, then with the help of surgical endonasal interventions, access is made to the olfactory gap and the opening of the main sinus. In the presence of indications it is necessary to open the main sinus through its front wall with the preliminary removal of the middle shell and posterior cells of the latticed labyrinth or the posterior parts of the nasal septum.