Migraine: forms, signs and how to relieve an attack

Migraine has long ceased to be a disease of "ladies from high society", who languidly brought the back of the palm to the forehead and with feigned suffering described this word almost all their ailments. About the real symptoms of migraine, how to treat this disease and prevent an attack now know almost everything, but despite this, headaches of a vascular nature still bother most of humanity regardless of gender.

What is it - a migraine, and what provokes an attack

What is it - a migraine, and how to deal with seizures? Migraine is a form of vascular headache, which usually captures one half of the head, but sometimes spreads over the entire head. Pain begins suddenly, and visual, neurological or gastrointestinal symptoms may precede or accompany it.

Headache with migraine is caused by the initial constriction and subsequent expansion( vasodilation) of the temporal arteries, which are located on the outer surface of the skull, right under the skin of the temple. Because of the expansion of the vessels, the nerve fibers with which the arteries are entangled are stretched and begin to release chemical substances that cause inflammation, pain and further expansion of the artery, as a result of which the pain intensifies.

The mechanism of migraine development is complex, not fully understood.

Migraine causes are numerous: eating disorders, alcohol( beer, red wine, champagne), smoking, sleep disturbances, changing weather conditions, overheating in the sun, noise, strong odors, hormonal changes in the body of a woman, menstruation, hormonal contraceptive use.

What else provokes a migraine is eating: chocolate, coffee, cocoa, cheese, nuts, smoked foods, citrus fruits( products rich in tyramine) disrupt the metabolism of serotonin in the central nervous system, which can cause a migraine attack.

The reason may also be: violent emotions, excessive mental and physical stress, when a huge amount of adrenaline and endorphins are released into the blood.

Migraines are more likely to be exposed to people engaged in intellectual work, as well as those who suffer from diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, especially the liver, metabolic disorders, endocrine disorders.

Migraine can appear at any age, usually it first appears for 10 to 30 years and sometimes disappears after 50.

Since about half of migraine sufferers have close relatives with the same disease, it is believed that developmentmigraine can be hereditary.

The forms, symptoms and diagnosis of migraine

Symptoms. Migraine is characterized by attacks of a headache, which is based on a vasospasm with ischemia( anemia) of certain parts of the brain tissue and its membranes, followed by vasodilation. This causes irritation of the receptors of the vessels and membranes of the brain, the phenomenon of edema of the brain tissue.

Migraine is a chronic condition with periodic exacerbations. Headaches are paroxysmal, pulsating in nature, from medium intensity to severe pain in the half of the head. The duration of the headache can last from 4 to 72 hours. This pain is aggravated by physical activity, the inclination of the head, accompanied by nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, pallor of the face;Hands and feet are often cold. Bright light, sharp sound, strong smell intensify the pain. If you have experienced such a condition at least 5 times - you are predisposed to migraine.

There are two forms of migraine: with aura and without aura. Aura are neurological symptoms: visual, auditory, sensitive, motor, aphasic( verbal disorders), vestibular. An aura develops within 5-20 minutes and lasts no more than an hour. Often there is a visual aura - a person sees flashing of bright flashes( photopsy) in the right or left field of vision, lightning, snake, falling out of the field of view or its fragments with distortion of objects.

Less common signs of migraine: tingling sensations in one hand or stitching in the mouth and nose on one side.

Other effects include auditory hallucinations and abnormal perception of flavors and odors.

Possible numbness and even immobilization of limbs( right, left, only hands).One form of migraine with aura is characterized by noise in the ears, dizziness, numbness of the extremities, sometimes there are faints. In another form, there is panic, fear, palpitations, tremors, rapid breathing, weakness, frequent urination.

All the symptoms of the aura are completely reversible.

Many neurological diseases are accompanied by headaches, so a recurring headache should necessarily lead you to a neurologist. When diagnosing migraine, as a rule, there are no neurological abnormalities, and the doctor will prescribe medications to stop the attack and preventive treatment. You will also have to visit the ophthalmologist, check the fields of vision, visual acuity, eye fundus, perform an instrumental examination: electroencephalography, computer or magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance imaging in angiography mode.

Recommendations on how to relieve pain with migraine

Unfortunately, the answer to the question "how to treat a migraine" does not have a clear and unambiguous answer. It is impossible to completely cure migraine. But it is possible to significantly improve the quality of life with the help of special preparations of basic( preventive) therapy and medications that take an attack.

After identifying the symptoms of migraine, treatment begins with arresting an attack. To do this, there are many drugs related to different pharmacological groups with different mechanisms of action. Migraine medications that relieve an attack include paracetamol, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory substances( ibuprofen, aspirin), ergot alkaloids. How else can you relieve the pain with migraines with medication? The most effective drugs are triptans( elitryptan, zolmitriptan, etc.).The means of preventive therapy include antidepressants, beta-adrenoblockers( anaprilin, obzidan), calcium blockers, anticonvulsants, as well as vitamin B2 and magnesium preparations( kormagnezin).How to relieve a migraine attack, the doctor will tell you the best. Self-medication is dangerous because of side effects of certain drugs. Abuse of analgesics can lead to the development of a drug-induced chronic headache.

The correct choice of a drug for the treatment of an attack is a difficult task, the solution of which depends on the nature of the migraine attack, concomitant diseases, past experience in the use of medicines.

Treatment of migraine is not only medical therapy, but also a lifestyle change.

Following are simple recommendations for migraines that can help reduce the frequency of seizures:

  • Observe the food ration by reducing or eliminating the use of foods and beverages that provoke seizures( cheeses, celery, citrus fruits, chocolate, beer, champagne, red wine, spices, smoked products;with a high content of caffeine, glutamate sodium);
  • Use the most useful foods that are rich in vitamins, microelements and energy - fresh vegetables and fruits, meat, fish, dairy products, eggs;
  • Do not allow large breaks in food( the intervals between meals should not be more than 5 hours, breakfast is mandatory);
  • Allow enough time for sleep;
  • Reduce stressful stress;
  • Do not smoke;
  • Go in for sports, especially swimming;
  • More out in the fresh air;
  • Avoid rooms with severe unpleasant odors;
  • Avoid long trips by car, bus, boat.

Another clinical recommendation for migraines: master a number of relaxation techniques that help to remove the excessive emotional stress caused by stress. Very useful, for example, water treatments - contrast showers, swimming, baths with sea salt.

As non-drug methods, acupuncture, collar zone massage, darsonvalization of the head and collar zone, water procedures - pearl, coniferous baths, physiotherapy exercises with an emphasis on the cervical spine. Improve the state of health of the mustard round neck, sleeping pills( 30-50 drops of valocordin), head massage and washing in very hot water under the shower. An effective remedy for stopping a migraine attack is a warm foot bath( or a warm water bottle to the feet).

How to prevent a migraine attack: disease prevention

How to prevent a migraine attack or at least reduce the frequency of seizures? The main task is to reduce the frequency and severity of migraine attacks. For the prevention of migraine use of medicines and non-drug methods in the complex.

To help with the appearance of harbingers of the attack, the first thing to do is not to wait for the pain to get a cup of strong sweet tea with any sweets. A large amount of glucose, so necessary to the brain in a state of hypoxia, can interrupt the further development of an attack. The most reasonable at the height of a migraine attack is to retire to a darkened room, shield yourself from sharp sounds and smells and try to fall asleep. Deep sleep at least for 2-3 hours, as a rule, completely removes the attack of migraine.

An attack can be prevented by changing the type of breathing. It is enough to make 5-6 shallow breaths with a belly and more prolonged exhalations. If correctly and in time to apply these techniques at the initial stage, the attack of migraine will be avoided.

Migraine diet: what foods can be eaten

As a variety of studies show, the appearance of migraines can be associated, including with malnutrition. If you make adjustments to your daily menu, you will soon forget about migraines or it will rarely remind you.

Diets for migraines involve minimizing the number of products that contribute to seizures, and the simultaneous introduction into their menus of products that have a calming effect. For these products, migraine includes fish oil.

Excellent medicine - ginger. It acts as an analgesic. Peppermint has a soothing and refreshing effect. It can be added to drinks or used as a supplement to desserts. What other foods can you eat with migraines to reduce pain? Enter into your diet pepper. It is not for nothing called the king of spices, it contains capsaicin - a substance that instantly relieves pain.

Observing a special "antimigraine" diet, it is important not to miss meals at all.

If you go hungry, your blood will lower the level of sugar, which can cause a severe headache. Eat more foods rich in calcium and magnesium. These include nuts, greens, cereals.

Migraine herbs: folk remedies

In the treatment of migraine, phytotherapy plays an auxiliary role. Applied plants with analgesic, spasmolytic, vasodilating, sedative, restorative properties. Effective means in the fight against migraine are strong green tea, fresh vine juice, and also black currant juice.

Folk Remedies for Migraine Treatment:

  • You can take hot foot baths, put hot compresses on your head, apply tight tightening of your head, hot drink;
  • If, during a migraine attack, one half of the head turns red, then a cold lotion should be put on this side, and the legs should be lowered into hot water. If the painful part of the head is white( that is, the blood has dripped from it), then it should be put hot lotions. If there is no difference in the color of the skin, you can tie the entire head with a hot towel, grabbing the whiskey, and put a slice of fresh lemon on the whiskey;
  • Perform a head massage starting from the forehead and moving with both hands to the back of the head;
  • It is useful to drink freshly squeezed carrot, cucumber and spinach juices;
  • Effective compresses with raw onions on the forehead;
  • In the old days it was advised to put a tampon moistened with onion juice in the ear of a migraine attack.
  • How to treat migraine folk remedies using herbs and other methods?

And how to treat migraine folk remedies using medicinal herbs?

Infusion of elderberry Siberian:

1 tbsp.a spoonful of dried flowers pour 1 cup of boiling water and let it brew for 60 minutes. Take 1/2 cup of honey 3 times a day for 15 minutes before meals.

Migraine collection:

1 tbsp. Spoon a mixture of peppermint, oregano and kaprenia narrow-leaved pour 300 ml of boiling water and press for 60 minutes. Strain and take this infusion of herbs from migraine by 1 glass if necessary.

Broth from St. John's wort perfumed:

1 tbsp. Spoon a dry herb pour 1 cup of boiling water and keep on the fire for 10 minutes. After that, leave the broth for 30 minutes, so that it is infused. Drink 1/2 cup in the morning, lunch and evening.

Melissa setting:

3 tbsp.spoon the herbs of melissa pour 1 cup of boiling water and insist for 1 hour. Take 2 tbsp.spoon 4 times a day.