Scoliosis is a pathological change in posture with curvature of the vertebral column in the frontal projection. It is possible to visualize only the 3rd and 4th stages of scoliosis. In the first two stages of development, changes in appearance can be almost invisible. However, this does not mean a general well-being of health, since violations of posture provoke the dislocation of internal organs and disrupt the process of physiological innervation of all organs and systems.
On this page you will find exhaustive information about this pathology. You can see the degree of scoliosis in the photo, which clearly illustrates the types of pathological abnormalities.
Scoliosis of the 1st and 2nd degree and its photos
Scoliosis of the 1st degree is diagnosed in approximately 30% of adolescents aged after 12 years. The primary detection of the violation of posture occurs during periodic medical examinations at school. The diagnosis can be confirmed by radiographic imaging. In this case, the deviation of the axis of the vertebral column in the thoracic or lumbar region will be seen.
Scoliosis of the 1st degree is established if the angle between perpendicular lines does not exceed a value of 10 degrees. With this pathology, primary torsion can be observed to a small extent. A more complete twisting of the spinal column with a change in the angle of the position of the spinous processes allows the doctor to establish a diagnosis of scoliosis of the 2nd degree.
The following is a photo of a scoliosis of the 1st degree with different types of torsion:
Scoliosis of the 2nd degree is characterized by a significant lateral twisting of a single section of the spinal column. In this case, spinous processes can be seen when trying to bend the back forward. When palpation is felt intense muscle fibers, which can be defined as an isolated compensatory roller. With scoliosis of the 2nd degree, the angle of deviation from the axis can be from 11 to 25 degrees. This is a serious pathology, which tends to rapid progression. The condition of the sick person can worsen. There are constant pulling and stitching pains in the back. Increased fatigue and reduced resistance to physical activity.
Further scoliosis of the 2nd degree in the photo is shown in various variants of the combined pathology:
Lumbar scoliosis of the 1st and 2nd degree
Lumbar scoliosis of the 1st and 2nd degree can cause unobvious changes in the functioning of the abdominal organs. Patients may have kidney dislocations, problems with urination, bowel evacuation.
The main cause of lumbar scoliosis of the 1st degree is the disruption of the placement of the foot in the form of flat feet and clubfoot. Lumbar scoliosis of the second degree can also be formed in patients with severe hip joint pathologies. Usually, the violation of posture begins to progress after the forced use of the walking cane with deforming osteoarthritis of the hip joint.
Lumbar scoliosis is subdivided into subspecies in the place of its localization. The most common lumbar scoliosis of the 1st degree is formed between vertebrae L5 - S1, which are part of the lumbar and sacral group. Lumbar scoliosis of the 2nd degree often develops in the sections between the vertebrae Th11 and Th12, which are the lower structural part of the thoracic spine. Lumbar scoliosis of the 2nd and 1st degree between vertebrae L1 and L2 is the most common pathology that develops against a background of destructive changes in the cartilaginous tissue. It can be a radiculitis, an osteochondrosis or an intervertebral hernia of a disk.
In the corners of curvature, this type of scoliosis fully corresponds to the classification given above.
Left-sided and right-sided thoracic scoliosis of the 1st and 2nd degree
Second-degree thoracic scoliosis is a frequent diagnosis in adolescents who complete secondary general education.
Curvature of posture occurs for many reasons.
Leading among them include:
- inadequate physical activity to develop the muscles of the vertebral corset of the back;
- uneven distribution of physical activity;
- incorrect posture during sitting and working;
- degenerative connective tissue diseases;
- transferred in early childhood rickets;
- injuries, bruises, falls from a height;
- wearing shoes that do not match age( as an example, girls use high-heeled shoes).
The most common left-sided scoliosis of the 1st degree with an angle of deviation from the central axis is not more than 10 degrees. This pathology may not have visible manifestations. The patient can complain of increased fatigue, back pain, irritability, a feeling of squeezing behind the sternum. The symmetry of the shoulders is preserved. Treatment is performed by an orthopedic physician. It is necessary to use a special corset and muscle strengthening back exercises.
Special attention is required for thoracic left-sided scoliosis of the 2nd degree, in which the deviation from the physiological axis of the vertebral column is more than 11 degrees. As a rule, such patients have the effect of lateral twisting with pinching of the nerve fiber roots. The innervation of the sinus node of the driver of the heart rhythm is violated. There may be problems with the state of the respiratory system. The pain in the back is constant, pulling, aching, intensified after physical exertion.
Right-sided scoliosis of the 1st degree is found mainly in left-handed people. Although if the cause of this pathology is the osteochondrosis of the thoracic region, a right-sided scoliosis of the 1st degree can be observed in right-handers. Angle deviation is not more than 10 degrees, without side torsion.
Thoracic scoliosis can form in two departments. Often there is a curvature between the vertebrae Th3 and Th4, less often the pathology is localized exclusively between the vertebrae Th8 and Th9.In this case, thoracic scoliosis is labeled with the Latin letter C. There are combined forms of thoracic and lumbar scoliosis. In this case, radiographically, the violation of posture appears in the form of the letter S and is appropriately marked when the diagnosis is made. In severe cases of lateral twisting, there is a sigmoid type of thoracic and thoracolumbar scoliosis of the 1st and 2nd degree.
Scoliosis of 3rd and 4th degree and its photos
Scoliosis of the third degree is a severe pathology that has visible clinical signs in the form of a change in the level of the position of the humerus line, the transformation of the chest and light lameness due to a disturbance in the balance of motion. Scoliosis of the third degree is established in the case when the angle of deviation from the central axis is between 26 - 39 degrees.
The photo shows patients with scoliosis of the third degree:
The expressed deformation of the chest can provoke pneumosclerosis and a decrease in the vital volume of the lungs. Patients experience shortness of breath, cardiac dysfunction, increased fatigue and decreased efficiency. The back pain is intense, intensifying in the evening and night. An emergency correction of posture is necessary in order to prevent the development of pathologies of internal organs.
An even more serious disorder causes scoliosis of the 4th degree, in which the deformation of the chest and the dislocation of the internal organs of the abdominal cavity can achieve total results. The work of the liver and gallbladder is disrupted, and patients have difficulty in emptying the intestine and bladder. The pain is severe, extending to the entire lateral plane of the thorax and the anterior abdominal wall. An X-ray photograph shows a deviation of the angle from the axis with a value of more than 41 degrees. Deformation of vertebral bodies and their complete twisting are visible.
Further on the photo, scoliosis of the 4th degree is presented in various variants of a combination of pathology with kyphosis and lordosis:
Scoliosis of 1st, 2nd degree and army
If the diagnosis of scoliosis of the 1st degree is established, the army, more precisely, the call for urgent military service is not contraindicated. But only in the event that there are no more serious combined pathologies, which, in fact, caused the violation of posture. If we take an isolated juvenile scoliosis of the 1st degree, the army waits for such a "fighter", since there are no other health restrictions. In the event that the issue of enlisting in the army with scoliosis of the 1st degree, which is provoked by the pathology of the hip joint, the decision of the medical commission will depend on the severity of the cause of the violation of posture.
In scoliosis of the 2nd degree, the army is contraindicated, the conscript receives exemption from the call for health reasons. This provision is regulated by clause "c" of Article 66 of the Federal Law "Schedule of Diseases".
There is some cunning, which doctors resort to, examining the condition of conscripts. The fact is that scoliosis of the 2nd degree is the deviation of the axis in a separate part of the spinal column with a value of more than 11 degrees. But this parameter can vary significantly depending on the position of the body of the subject under examination with an X-ray photograph. In the lying position, the magnitude of the deviation of the axis can be reduced to 8-9 degrees. And this is no longer the reason for the conscript's rejection of the draft. Therefore, it is necessary to insist on an x-ray examination in various positions of the body. In the event of a controversial situation, it is recommended to contact the higher authorities of military medical commissions, undergo independent examinations.
Upon receipt of the conclusion of the military medical examination with scoliosis of the 2nd degree it is indicated that the recruit is fit with certain limitations. This is the so-called group of diseases "B".With her issued a military ticket with special marks on the non-passage of compulsory military service for health reasons. Annual commissions to confirm an existing diagnosis with scoliosis of the 2nd degree are not appointed. Exemption from conscription in the army - a lifetime. However, such conscripts can be summoned for military training. They are also subject to appeal in case of declaration of a military and emergency situation in the territory of the Russian Federation.