The pathology of filtration, collection and extraction of urine with salts, oxalates and other inclusions contained therein is called nephropathy of the kidneys. The disorder can occur against the backdrop of chronic inflammatory and degenerative processes, as a result of acute or chronic poisoning of the body, the effects of decay products of internal tissues, changes in hormonal balance and immune status.
The diagnosis of nephropathy of the kidneys is determined by individuals who have not only clinical signs of disturbance of the process of urination, but there are also laboratory-confirmed changes. These are typical pathological deviations in the general analysis of urine, a biochemical blood test with a predominant increase in creatinine clearance and the appearance of urate salts, uric acid. In the analysis of urinalysis by Nechiporenko, proteinuria and an increase in the urine density parameter may predominate. In the analysis of urine according to Zimnitsky, there is a picture of a decrease in the total volume of diuresis and the appearance of protein in the morning and evening portions.
Depending on the cause of the pathology, nephropathy can be congenital or acquired. There is a hereditary predisposition to the pathology of the glomerular system of blood filtration in the kidneys. Quite often there is a toxic form of nephropathy, which can develop against a background of chronic alcoholism, work in harmful conditions, use of certain medications, as well as with long-term inflammatory processes in the human body.
Nephropathy of pregnant women
It is enough to say that with nephropathy in pregnant women, there can be edematous syndrome, which prevents normal blood supply to the tissues of the lower extremities, brain and heart muscle. Prolonged in large quantities of protein in the urine provokes the development of fetal dystrophy, first of all the developing muscle of the myocardium suffers. In such newborns, congenital heart defects, hypotrophy, and lack of development of the skin are often determined.
The main cause of nephropathy in pregnant women lies in specific hormonal changes, which are based on the production of a large number of estrogens. These substances inhibit the work of the kidneys and urinary system. In later terms, there is a dislocation of the kidneys, which are displaced by the rising bottom of the uterus. This is a pathological factor that disrupts the process of urine filtration.
In the body of a woman, this leads to the accumulation of sodium salts, which attract water to their molecules, increasing substantially the volume of circulating blood. In the future, the total expansion of the venous channel develops, blood pressure rises, dense edema appears on the legs, hands, and face. There may be secondary complications in the form of hemorrhoids, varicose veins of the lower extremities. A systematic full-fledged treatment is required under constant monitoring by the physician. Nephropathy in pregnancy is an indication for hospitalization in a specialized hospital.
Chronic exchange dismetabolic nephropathy of the kidneys
Another dangerous type of pathology is chronic nephropathy of the kidneys, which develops against the background of long-term inflammatory diseases of the urinary system. The cause of chronic renal nephropathy can be endocarditis, myocarditis, gastrointestinal pathology, tuberculosis and many other diseases. Often, such a type of violations affect people with a diagnosis of alcoholism, drug addiction and substance abuse. It often develops in people who are addicted to therapy with analgesics, belonging to the group of anti-inflammatory non-steroid agents. These are all known "Ketanov", "Baralgin", "Sedalgin", "Pentalgin", "Ibuprofen", "Diclofenac" and many other drugs.
Renal kidney nephropathy can result from prolonged starvation or a reduction in the amount of animal protein in the diet. Renal renal nephropathy often becomes a typical complication of such diseases as:
- gout and increased crystallization of blood salts;
- urolithiasis with predominance of obstructive syndrome;
- diabetes mellitus with diabetic nephropathy and narrowing of the blood vessels in the adrenal glands;
- obesity against the background of the pathology of the endocrine system with the development of excess lipid tissue producing a large number of estrogens;
- kidney amyloidosis with nephrotic syndrome;
- cirrhosis of the liver in the stage of hepatic and biliary insufficiency.
Otherwise, this condition is called dysmetabolic kidney nephropathy, which in its essence indicates a violation of the process of urine filtration against the background of total pathologies in the environment of the human body's metabolic system. The risk of dysmetabolic renal nephropathy in children in the newborn and in the thoracic development period is the development of the syndrome of acute renal failure and death.
Signs and symptoms of kidney nephropathy
The first signs of nephropathy of the kidneys may appear after some time from the onset of pathological changes in the system of glomerular filtration of urine. It can be increased fatigue when doing the usual actions, headaches and dizziness, nausea, irritability and nervousness. After some time, typical symptoms of nephropathy of the kidneys arise:
- edematous syndrome, which is characterized by dense edema on the lower legs, under the eyes, and the puffiness of the face;
- unpleasant odor of ammonia from the mouth;
- increased blood pressure with a violation of the proportions between systolic and diastolic parameters;
- pain in the lumbar region of blunt character;
- decrease in the level of daily diuresis.
The examination reveals edema of the subcutaneous fat layer, increased heart rate, increased blood pressure, increased sweating. Pasternatsky's symptom is weakly positive from one or two sides.
In the future, the symptoms of nephropathy are "enriched" signs of chronic kidney failure. In the study of urine, a large amount of protein and salts are detected, which are dissolved in a liquid with a high specific gravity. For differential diagnosis, fluoroscopy with the introduction of contrast medium, ultrasound.
Treatment of nephropathy of the kidneys
An important aspect of the treatment of nephropathy of the kidneys is a special diet, in which the deficit of animal protein is compensated by its plant analogues. The patient is given a diet rich in fresh vegetables and fruits. The water and drinking balance is normalized. It is necessary to drink a lot of alkaline drinks.
Improve the work of the glomerular filtration system of urine with a drug such as "Phytolysin".He is appointed long courses of 30 - 60 days for 1 tablespoon of paste 3 times a day. To increase blood supply is assigned kontrikal intravenously, pentoksifilin 2 tablets 3 times a day. Vitaminotherapy is indicated: ascorbic acid, nicotinic acid, pyridoxine and cyanocobalamin are used.
If urine retention can be prescribed diuretic drugs: "Furosemide" 1 tablet in the morning, "Lasix" 1 tablet 2 times a day, "Veroshpiron" or "Hypothiazid."Especially they are shown at the raised arterial pressure against the expressed nephropathy of kidneys. Together with diuretics it is necessary to take "Asparcum" or "Panangin" preparations 1 tablet 3 times a day. They compensate for the loss of potassium and magnesium needed for the normal functioning of the heart muscle and other types of muscle tissue.
In severe cases, antihypertensive therapy is indicated, which may be administered by drugs such as Nifedipine, Capoten, or Captopril. In hospital conditions, intravenous infusions of saline and glucose can be used to normalize the acid-base balance of the blood. In severe cases, an artificial kidney apparatus may be shown for the purpose of hemodialysis and purification from toxins and toxins.