It's hard to imagine your life without water. We use water for drinking, cooking, for personal hygiene, washing, etc., that is, water is necessary for normal human activity. Therefore, it is so important that it is clean and absolutely harmless to health. Unfortunately, it is very difficult to find clean water today. And there can be many reasons for this - from the unsatisfactory condition of water pipes to the characteristics of water supply sources. That is why the issue of water treatment at home is so urgent today.
- 1 Why clean the water
- 1 Defending
- 3 Boiling
- 4 Freezing
- 5 Bottled water
- 6 Household filters
- 7 Filtering with activated carbon and minerals
Why purify water
The main drawback of tap water is excessive stiffness, that isexcess of calcium and magnesium salts, hydrocarbonates, sulfates and iron. High rigidity gives the water a bitterish taste, has a negative effect on the digestive system, violates the water-salt balance in the human body, forms a calcareous deposit on the dishes and heating elements of household appliances, spoils the fabric when washing.
In tap water, various impurities can be present: nitrogen compounds, sodium, potassium, calcium, manganese salts, etc. Controversial benefits come from chlorination. On the one hand, chlorination is an effective, affordable and inexpensive way of water disinfection.
On the other hand, chlorine significantly impairs the taste of water, the same chlorine, reacting with organic compounds, can form chlorine-containing toxins, mutagenic and carcinogenic substances and poisons, including dioxides.
Naturally, the quality of tap water is controlled by the appropriate authorities and if the concentration of harmful impurities is exceeded, appropriate measures are taken in it. However, most experts agree that it is impossible to drink water directly from the tap. We need to at least boil it.
Defending is the simplest way to purify tap water. Under sedimentation is understood the process of separation of suspended particles from water under the action of gravitational forces, namely, salts, some heavy metals, etc. To clean the water in this way, you need to take a clean vessel, for example, a jar, fill it with tap water, cover it with a little and leave for 5-6 hours. During this time, suspended particles settle on the bottom. Use only the upper 2/3 of water, the lower 1/3 of the water is desirable to pour, because it is in it all the harmful impurities are concentrated. Defend water more than the specified time is not recommended, since in the long-standing water, pathogenic bacteria can start to multiply.
Boiling is considered to be the simplest and most affordable way to treat domestic water. Moreover, if water is not purified by means of filters, boiling is a prerequisite for its harmless consumption. Boiling helps to purify water from many kinds of impurities. Under the influence of high temperature, most of the bacteria die, the chlorine-containing compounds are destroyed, the water becomes soft and tasty. However, boiling has its drawbacks.
- First, in chlorinated water, under the influence of high temperature, a dioxin is formed, which tends to accumulate in the human body and has a carcinogenic effect.
- Secondly, the usual boiling( not long) destroys far from all microbes, not to mention heavy metals, nitrates, phenol and petroleum products.
- Thirdly, with prolonged exposure to high temperatures, the water structure breaks down and, at best, becomes useless, and in the worst case, harmful to health. Boiled water is heavy or, as it is also called, "dead" water. It contains heavy isotopes of hydrogen - deuterium atoms. The negative impact of such water on the human body is confirmed by numerous studies.
To purify water by boiling was as effective as possible and negative effects were minimal, it is important to observe the following rules:
- Do not boil water repeatedly, pouring out water from the kettle and rinsing it after each use.
- It is advisable to boil pre-filtered water or thoughwould be a permanent
Use only the upper 2/3 of the volume for drinking or cooking, the remaining water should be poured
- Clean the kettle and other dishesdo not descale
- Avoid prolonged boiling
You can clear tap water at home by partially freezing it. The essence of this method of purification is as follows: cleaner and more fresh freezes faster, then water that contains impurities and salts crystallizes. For water purification by this method, it is necessary to pour water into a container, for example, into a plastic bottle, and put in a freezer. When the first thin layer of ice forms on the surface of the water, it should be removed, since it is frozen freezing heavy water.
After the water freezes by about half, take out the container from the freezer. Frozen water should be used for drinking and cooking. Unfreezing water should not be used. In winter, it is much easier to clean water. In frosty weather, containers with water can be placed on the open air.
For a better effect, you can use a double cleansing, that is, first to stand water or pass through the filter, and then freeze.
By the way, since ancient times it is known that melt water has a number of medicinal properties. Thus, purification of water by freezing allows you to get not only clean, but also healing water.
You can replace bottled water from a tap with bottled water, which you can easily buy at any store. Now many people prefer this kind of water, considering it as safe as possible for health. Bottled water is divided into two categories: water of the first category and water of the highest category. Water of the first category is well-purified tap water. That is, the water from the tap is first cleaned of impurities, then disinfected, after which useful elements are added to it and bottled in a container. Such water is indisputably better than tap water, but not all producers manage to completely clean the water of impurities.
The water quality of the highest category is much higher. Most often it is pure underground water, which does not contain harmful impurities. Such water is either initially rich in compounds such as fluorine, potassium, calcium, iodine, or it is enriched with them before pouring in a container. There is an erroneous view that the water should be cleaned of all impurities and it will be useful. In fact, water should enrich the human body with minerals. Unfortunately, there are many unscrupulous manufacturers in the market who sell not only badly bottled water, but also not enough mineralized water. Therefore, in order not to purchase a fake, it is worth paying attention to the following:
- The label of the water container must contain information about the category of water
- . The container must not have any dents; the drawings and labels on the label must be clearly printed.
- At the bottom of the water tankthere must be a deposit of
- It is better to buy water from well-known manufacturers that produce similar products for a long time.
Clean and useful water can be obtained with household filters. There are many different filters with which water can be cleaned with varying degrees of purification. Household filters are divided into two groups:
- Jug filters. They are easy to use and affordable, however, their performance and degree of water purification are low. If there are a lot of mechanical impurities in tap water, but its chemical composition is in accordance with the norms, you can confine yourself to this device. The service life of the filter is large, most importantly, about once every 1.5-2 months( after cleaning 150-300 liters of water) to replace the cartridge. The jug needs to be cleaned regularly, and also do not allow long-term storage of filtered water in it. Otherwise, it may be infected with bacteria. Before a long break in operation, it should be rinsed, dried and stored in a dry place, since moisture is a favorable environment for the propagation of pathogenic microbes.
- Flow models. They are connected directly to a water pipe or a water tap, are relatively expensive, but at the same time are characterized by high productivity and provide a high quality of purified water. The use of such models is advisable if the water is highly rigid and has harmful impurities. The cartridges used in them not only produce mechanical cleaning of water, but also precipitate toxic chemical impurities, make the water softer taste more pleasant.
For effective filter operation, it is necessary to change the cartridge in time, which has a limited resource. As a rule, in stationary models the cartridge serves approximately 1 year. It is important to remember that flow filters need continuous operation. With a long break in the use of such a filter, optimal conditions for the multiplication of microbes are created in its cartridge, and there is a loss of operational properties of the filter material. As a result, it may be necessary to replace the cartridge and thoroughly clean the filter cavity.
Filtration with activated carbon and minerals
It is believed that activated carbon absorbs from the water harmful substances for the human body, including heavy metals such as lead, radon and its decomposition products, chlorine, pesticides, etc. InAt the same time, it enriches the water with valuable minerals. For water purification, activated carbon tablets are packed in a gauze pouch and placed in a container of water for 12-14 hours. After this time, clean water is suitable for consumption. It is not recommended to leave water with activated carbon for a longer period, since such water can become a favorable environment for the multiplication of various microorganisms.
Often used for the purification of water minerals, in particular, silicon.
This method of obtaining clean water was used in Ancient Rus. It is believed that due to the activation of water by silicon, it becomes not only clean, but also more delicious and can be stored for a long time without changing the composition. In such water, the life of viruses and pathogens is simply impossible. Silicon absorbs such substances harmful to human health, such as salts of heavy metals, pesticides, etc. To clean the water with silicon at home, you need to place the silicon washed in running water in a glass or enamel ware, pour water at the rate of 10 g of mineral per liter of water. The dishes should be covered with a clean cloth and placed in a dark place for 2-3 days.
After the specified period, use the upper 2/3 of water, the remaining layer to pour, as it is there that accumulate harmful substances from the water. The resulting silicon water should not be stored in a refrigerator or boiled. It is better to leave it stored in a room at a temperature not lower than +10 ° С.
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