Hepatotropic viruses, getting into the body, cause a number of serious inflammatory changes. The nature of these changes will depend on the form of the hepatitis that has affected the patient. The form of hepatitis affects the very process of infection of the body, and the development of certain complications, and the severity of the course and outcome of the disease.
- 1 Characteristics of the
- 2 virus Hepatitis B distribution areas
- 2.1 Hepatitis B virus dissemination sites
- 3 Transmission methods of the disease
- 3.1 Sexual transmission
- 3.2 Possibility of infecting children by parents
- 3.3 Hepatitis B virus and household contacts
- 4 The risk group for thisdisease
- 5 Methods for determining the risk of infection
- 6 Does hepatitis B infection always lead to
- 6.1 ? Recurrent infection with hepatitis B
- 7 Prophylaxis
Characteristics of the
Hepatitis B is caused by the HBV virus. Its penetration into the body contributes to increased resistance to the environment, which this virus is endowed. If a drop of blood remains at the end of the needle, then the virus can survive a week.
In general, any droplet of blood with the virus contained in it is dangerous for infection during this time interval.
This disease is treated by several specialists. When choosing a gastroenterologist and hepatologist it is necessary to take into account the availability of a certificate and a license from a doctor. It is advisable to contact specialists of the highest category.
Spheres of hepatitis B distribution
This disease is common mainly among adults. They are sick people from 20 to 49 years. Children and adolescents in the developed countries are ill with them infrequently. Such results were obtained due to ubiquitous vaccination.
In Asia, Africa, hepatitis B is common among children. In some of these countries, up to 10% of the population is affected by hepatitis B.All this translates into an increased level of mortality from liver cancer, which develops as a result of hepatitis B infection in childhood. A quarter of cancer patients are people who suffer from liver cancer.
Hepatitis B virus dissemination sites
There are several main places where hepatitis B virus infection often occurs. These include the following:
- injecting drug use sites;
- tattoo parlors;
- salons of pedicure, manicure;
- body piercing;
- medical institutions.
This type of disease has spread most widely in Southeast Asia, the Pacific Basin, the Amazon, Africa( center and south), the Near and Middle East.
The closest source of localization of HBsAg to Russia is Central Asia, Moldova, Transcaucasia. There sometimes the percentage of cases reaches 8.
The lowest prevalence level is typical for North America and for Western Europe.
Methods of transmission of the disease
The virus is transmitted through biological fluids that must get directly into the blood. This situation can arise if you use the same cutting or stabbing objects together. Such items include manicure accessories, a razor. Such an object can become a common syringe.
Accessories for piercing and tattooing also carry a danger. Medical manipulations sometimes also lead to infection. Including, infection occurs when blood is transfused from a sick donor. Another way - from mother to baby during childbirth. Sexual transmission of the virus is also possible.
Sexually transmitted infections
It is believed that if one partner is sick or is a carrier, then the likelihood that a healthy partner will become infected with hepatitis is approximately 30%.The likelihood of infection will increase if you have sex with multiple partners. It is difficult to avoid infection when a single sexual partner maintains links with many other partners.
Complications of the situation is that the disease does not seem to affect the person in any way, therefore it is impossible to determine whether it is sick or not.
The situation is facilitated by the fact that this infection stops with the help of a timely vaccination.
Possibility of infecting children with
. During the course of pregnancy, if there were no complications related to impaired placental integrity( amniocentesis), hepatitis B infection does not occur. Infect the child can directly in childbirth, when there is movement through the birth canal.
According to statistics, children who were born from mothers infected with this virus are susceptible to developing chronic hepatitis B. And this disease, in turn, can end badly.
To avoid this outcome, babies born to mothers with hepatitis B virus are immediately vaccinated. The virus is found in breast milk. But it does not harm the health of the baby. Therefore, feeding is not limited.
Hepatitis B virus and household contacts
With household contacts, it is almost impossible to get the hepatitis B virus. Even the fact that the virus gets into saliva, faeces, urine, tears of an infected person does not increase the risk of spreading the disease by domestic means. To get the virus into the body, it must penetrate into the blood. And this is unlikely if there is no damaged skin or mucous membranes.
Children can be infected by the domestic method, which in their intercourse with each other have little respect for the rules of hygiene. But they are often traumatized as a result of careless behavior. The virus can not get to a person with food or talking. So a person with hepatitis B is not dangerous to the usual environment, so you can not isolate such people.
Risk group for this disease
- People with multiple sexual partners;
- homosexual men;
- people who have sex with hepatitis partners;
- injecting drug users;
- members of the family of patients with hepatitis B( chronic form);
- children who were born from mothers with a virus;
- health workers.
Methods for determining the risk of infection
To determine your condition, whether there is infection, whether there is a risk of developing the disease, you must pass the relevant tests. First, tests for antigens of the HBsAg virus are given, antibodies to this virus - anti-HBs are also detected. If both tests give a negative result, then there is a considerable risk of infection, so you should put the vaccine.
If HBsAg itself is detected, it means that you need to contact a doctor and perform a full examination. It is not necessary to be vaccinated, but we must take measures to treat and eliminate the development of the disease in full.
If a high anti-HBs titer is detected and HBsAg is not detected, it says that the disease has already been transferred in the past. In this case, vaccines are not needed.
Is hepatitis B always infected with
Almost always, infection leads to the development of the disease. The exception is when the vaccine was given. Also people who have already undergone this disease will not get sick.
If a baby was born from a mother suffering from this disease, an immunoglobulin specially designed for such cases is administered to him in the maternity hospital. This will protect the child by 85 - 95%.Such a high percentage of protection will only be provided if the vaccine is delivered to the child on time.
Such an immunoglobulin is administered to an adult. For example, employees of medical institutions, when it becomes known that a physician is infected with hepatitis B. It should be noted that vaccination, which was done in advance, gives a guaranteed result.
After infection, people develop an acute form of the disease. If the patient has been severely weakened, or the child is infected, then the acute stage most likely will not develop. And the disease will flow into a sluggish chronic form.
Repeated infection with hepatitis B
If laboratory recovery is confirmed after the illness, re-infection is almost completely eliminated.
It is necessary to comply with all hygiene rules, then the risk of infection is reduced to a minimum. Healthy family members need vaccination. Everyone should undergo a complete examination. To preventive measures include the following:
- It is necessary to have individual hygiene and care products, especially manicure accessories, toothbrushes, shaving machines.
- All injections should be done with disposable syringes, after use, dispose of them.
- Condoms used constantly.
- Tattoo, piercing done exclusively in salons.
This disease can affect anyone, so you should not lose your vigilance. It is necessary to put inoculations, vaccinated people get sick 20 times less often. Children are vaccinated after birth, at 1 month and at half a year. There are special categories of citizens to whom this vaccine is placed in the required order. These are members of the sick, employees of medical institutions, students of medical schools.
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