Anal bleeding can manifest serious diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, which threaten the health and sometimes the life of the patient. Therefore, such a terrible symptom can not be ignored neither by the patient, nor by the doctor, in order to prevent the further development of the disease and its complications.
- 1 bleeding as an important symptom
- 2 main causes of gastrointestinal bleeding
- 2.1 expansion of hemorrhoidal veins of the rectum
- 2.2 rectum cracks
- 2.3 polyposis bowel
- 2.4 colon cancer
- 2.5 Diverticulosis bowel
- 2.6 Angiodysplasia
- 2.7 Intestinal infection
- 3 Useful recommendations for gastrointestinal bleeding
- 4 Methods for treating hemorrhoids
- 4.1 Medication for hemorrhoids
Bleeding as an important symptom of
Sudden independent disappearance of bleeding from the anus is not an excuse for calmness, since this is a temporary condition before relapsing the disease. But this time of calm can complicate the treatment or make a positive outcome of the disease impossible.
By the color of bloody discharge it is possible to draw a preliminary conclusion about their origin. Bleeding can occur from any part of the digestive tract, and the higher the organ( esophagus, stomach) is, the darker the color of the blood.
This fact is explained by the action of digestive enzymes on the hemoglobin of erythrocytes, which changes the color of blood from scarlet to dark brown or black. An exception to this rule may be the presence of such a symptom as diarrhea, in which the blood allocated to the lumen of the intestine does not have time to darken because of its accelerated passage.
The main causes of gastrointestinal bleeding
The expansion of hemorrhoidal veins of the rectum
In the pathogenesis of the disease lies the expansion of the veins of the lower divisions of the rectum, which leads to the rupture of one or more small veins and the release of blood. As a rule, bleeding occurs after the act of defecation or physical exertion, the patient notices the allocation of several drops of scarlet blood on feces, underwear or toilet paper. There may be a copious discharge of blood, which may indicate a rupture of the hemorrhoidal node.
The mechanism of bleeding in hemorrhoids is associated with mechanical damage to the dilated veins of the lower part of the rectum by passing calves or as a result of increased pressure in them during straining or physical exertion. Usually, such bleeding does not cause pain in the patient, however, when an anal fissure or the complication of paraproctitis occurs, the pain present during the defecation and after it is added. Less frequent hemorrhoidal hemorrhages can lead to the initial stages of anemia with all its manifestations.
With the progression of hemorrhoids and the lack of adequate treatment, the sizes of the nodes gradually increase, bringing increasing concern to the patient, often their traumatization occurs, complicated by bleeding of various volumes. If you suspect a hemorrhoids, you urgently need to visit the proctologist, because the timely treatment of the disease will prevent from the development of its complications.
This disease develops as a result of the mechanical action of dense stools on the rectal wall, in which a rupture of different lengths is formed, and as a result, bleeding. The patient notices the scarring of blood immediately after defecation or during it, as well as sharp soreness when passing stools through the rectum site with a crack.
Provoking factor to the appearance of blood from the anal fissure can serve as a physical load or straining the patient with constipation. A distinctive sign of bleeding of the rectum, arising from hemorrhoids or fissures of the anus, is that the feces are not mixed with blood and mucus, which in these conditions is insignificant.
In case there is a lot of mucus in blood mixed feces, it can be assumed that the patient has a bleeding neoplasm( both malignant and benign) in the intestine.
Polyposis of the intestine
Polyp is a neoplasm of benign nature that has a wide base or grows on the stem. The course of the disease is often asymptomatic, less often with manifestations of peristalsis disturbances in the form of constipation or diarrhea. In the future, the polyp begins to bleed, and the amount of bleeding depends on the size of the tumor. But the main danger of this neoplasm is its ability to eventually degenerate into a malignant( intestinal cancer).
The disease is manifested by such symptoms: frequent urge to defecate, discomfort and soreness in the intestinal area, the discharge of blood mixed with feces and a lot of mucus. This symptomatology can manifest itself already at the early stages of the development of the disease.
In the future there are pains in the region of the sacrum and coccyx, constipations are attached, stools are secreted in small portions, and frequent bleeding from the intestine occurs. The main difference between bleeding from the neoplasm of the intestine is the brown color of bloody discharge, which is mixed with feces and mucus, and can contain blood veins or clots.
Diverticulosis of the intestine
In the pathogenesis of the disease lies the weakness of the intestinal wall, in which under pressure, appearing in the lumen of the intestine, protrusions and pockets are formed. They can accumulate the remains of the contents of the intestine, which leads to inflammatory changes in the wall of the diverticula and its possible rupture.
The course of the disease can be asymptomatic until the inflammatory changes in the diverticulum, which can manifest itself in addition to signs of inflammation and bleeding from the intestine. The rupture of the diverticulum is accompanied by the symptoms of the "acute abdomen": tension and sharp soreness of the muscular wall of the abdomen, elevated body temperature, thirst and dry mouth.
When the diverticulum is localized in the sigmoid part of the large intestine, the blood extracted from the intestine differs in scarlet color;If the source of bleeding is higher, the color of the blood will be black or dark brown. Since bleeding from the diverticulum of the colon accompanies a violation of the integrity of its wall, in this case urgent surgical care is needed to avoid the occurrence of life-threatening complications - peritonitis and profuse bleeding.
This pathology occurs due to age-related degenerative-dystrophic changes in the vessels of the intestinal wall. In the mucous membrane of the intestine, conglomerates of dilated and fragile vessels are formed, which, when broken, manifest intestinal bleeding, characterized by the discharge of scarlet blood from the rectum. Morbidity in this disease patients are often not noted, but bleeding is recurrent chronic.
This disease is characterized by the appearance of frequent liquid bowel movements, nausea with subsequent vomiting or without it, manifestations of intoxication and increased body temperature. The causative agents of the disease are the dysenteric rod, salmonella, amoeba. Other diseases that may be accompanied by gastrointestinal bleeding include:
- Crohn's disease and nonspecific ulcerative colitis, characterized by a lesion of the intestinal wall ulcerative character due to autoimmune pathological processes in the body. The resulting ulcerative defects of the intestinal wall lead to frequent bleeding, in addition patients are disturbed by intense pain in the abdomen, anorexia, an increased body temperature. The nature of the stool for these diseases varies from melena( black stool) to abundant bloody discharge;
- erosive colitis, the cause of which is radiation therapy;
- thrombosis of mesenteric vessels;
- ischemic lesion of the intestinal wall as a consequence of disturbances in its blood supply;
- endometriosis of the intestine in women with menstruation;
- lesions of the intestinal wall due to helminthic invasion.
Determining the cause of intestinal bleeding is the task of specialist doctors who will be able to differentiate possible diseases leading to this condition. Taking into account the negative consequences in the form of malignancy of benign neoplasms of the intestine, a visit to the proctologist should occur as soon as possible, and in persons who had similar conditions in the anamnesis, it is desirable and with a preventive purpose.
Useful recommendations for gastrointestinal bleeding
- toilet paper for anal bleeding should have a soft and smooth structure so as not to injure the anus area, which can cause bleeding if an anus fracture and hemorrhoids occur;
- The use of toilet paper should be done with extreme caution, without excess pressure on the anus area, so as not to injure the zone of the fracture or hemorrhoidal site;
- , the unprotected nails on the hands can become a traumatic factor for the affected area.
- in addition, bleeding sites are the gateway to infection and non-compliance with hygiene rules and the constant trauma of the anal area threatens the occurrence of complications such as inflammation of the hemorrhoidal node or paraproctitis, which are already acute surgical pathology and require immediate intervention by a proctologist or surgeon;
- to reduce the traumatic effect of stool during defecation is justified by the use of emollients based on Vaseline or another similar substance that are applied immediately before the act of bowel movement on the anus region;
- does not interfere with the accuracy and attention during meals, especially people with diseases showing gastrointestinal bleeding, since any object that can not be digested in the gastrointestinal tract, or even chewed food can become a traumatic factor and cause bleeding;
- the use of a large amount of liquid prevents the formation of stools of a solid consistency, than the elimination of the factor of traumatism when passing them through the anus. The recommended minimum amount of liquid to be drunk is 2 liters per day.
- a positive role in reducing the factors of trauma in the anus area is played by eating high-fiber foods. This group of food products includes vegetables and fruits, dishes from legumes and unmilled cereals. The consistency of stool with the use of these products becomes elastic and soft, which facilitates unimpeded passage through the anus.
If, after observing all of the precautions listed above, bleeding from the anus has ceased, then it is still not necessary to neglect the visit of the doctor, since the task of medicine is not only to eliminate the symptom, but also to find out its origin and cure its root cause, thereby preventing relapses of bleeding.
Methods for treating hemorrhoids
In the treatment of hemorrhoids, patients should adhere to the following recommendations:
- not to allow the occurrence of constipation, especially in the period of exacerbation of the disease and the occurrence of its complications( bleeding, inflammation of the hemorrhoidal node).The basis for this task should be a diet with a high content of fiber and liquid. It is necessary to try to work out a conditioned reflex to defecation at the same time and stimulate it with fluid intake. The duration of the defecation should not be too long to avoid an increase in pressure in the intestine. If these simple measures do not have an effect, laxatives should be used;
- daily conduct a course of local water procedures in the form of a sitting bath for the anal area. They are held in the evening in cool water, which has a vasoconstrictive effect and stimulates the blood supply of the anal zone, or with the decoction of chamomile, which has a disinfectant property. The broth is prepared from 4 tablespoons chamomile flowers, filled with one liter of cold water, by bringing it to a boil and then cooling to room temperature;
- to comply with the diet with the exception of spicy dishes, coffee, strong tea, alcohol and the inclusion of a large amount of liquid( up to 2 liters per day) in the form of juices, fruit drinks, water, and fiber-rich foods to form stools softconsistency and elastic structure;
disposal of excess weight, especially with fat deposits in the abdominal region, which are a factor disrupting venous outflow from the large intestine;
- strict adherence to hygienic rules of a general nature and anal zone in particular, which implies a washing after each act of defecation with cool clean water, which helps to narrow the blood vessels and normalize the tone of the vascular wall;
to exclude weight lifting as a factor that causes an increase in intra-abdominal and, consequently, intestinal pressure;
- pay attention to moderate non-violent physical exercises for the lower body. Especially positive effect is walking, stimulating venous outflow from the pelvic organs, as well as gymnastics and swimming. It is recommended to do a special gymnastics for the muscles of the anal zone every 2 hours, alternately tensioning and relaxing them 10-15 times, as well as circling the pelvis and tilting back and forth;
- do not use tight-fitting underwear and trousers, so as not to disturb the venous outflow from the small pelvis;
- do not take a long hot bath or shower, which increase the flow of blood to the small pelvis and reduce the venous outflow from it.
Medical treatment of hemorrhoids
The main drugs for the treatment of hemorrhoids are antivaric agents, which normalize blood circulation and venous outflow from the pelvic organs. Representatives of this group of drugs are troxevasin, escusane, reparil, tribenozide, anavenol, aspirin, detraleks. However, the spectrum of their use is limited by contraindications and side effects.
To date, the search for complex drugs for the treatment of hemorrhoids, because existing drugs affect the individual pathogenesis of the disease.
For the most curious - Bleeding from the polyp of the rectum. Emergency endoscopic mucosal resection:
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