Urine is a natural product of the vital activity of the human kidney, one of the kinds of excrement. This physiological fluid is a weak solution of various substances, including salts, the precipitation of which into the crystalline precipitate is determined by the change in the urine( pH) reaction to the alkaline or acidic side. That is why in those cases when the content of salts in the sediment is detected once, then the analysis performed can not be considered indicative and indicates the presence of any pathological manifestations in the patient. However, if the salt precipitate is impressive and appears in the urine with an enviable regularity, then it can be one of the first symptoms of gastrointestinal diseases or impaired renal function. In addition, the excessive content of salts in urine can contribute to the onset and development of urolithiasis.
Most often, salt crystals are found in the urine of preschool children: this is due to the peculiarities of their nutrition, the weak ability of the kidneys to split a large number of chemical elements, as well as with fluctuations in pH.The number of salts found in the urine is usually indicated in the blank of the analysis by pluses of one to four. In this case, the presence of two advantages in such a medical form is considered an acceptable norm. Most often urate is found in urine sediment( usually falling out in urine with acid reaction), oxalates( can appear in both alkaline and acidic medium) and phosphates( in most cases precipitating in alkaline medium).
1. Urates are a precipitate of uric acid and its salts. The most common cause of the appearance of salts of this type in the urine of a child are:
- consumption of foods rich in purine bases( meat broths, meat, sardines, sprat, herring, offals, legumes), and strong tea, cocoa, smoked products, chocolate and mushrooms;
- excessive physical activity;
- feverish conditions;
- a large loss of fluid( eg, with diarrhea, vomiting, or with excessive sweating);
- urate acid diathesis;
When detecting a significant amount of urate in the urine of a child, it is recommended to include in its daily diet:
- water( up to 1-1.5 liters within 24 hours);
- non-purulent products( dairy dishes, eggs, fruits, cereals, vegetables, flour products);
- alkaline mineral water( Essentuki, Borjomi);
- products containing magnesium, calcium, zinc, B vitamins and vitamin A.
2. Oxalates are the salts that are most often detected in the urine:
- when eating foods and foods enriched with vitamin C and oxalic acid( parsley,spinach, sorrel, beets, celery, citrus fruits, radish, currant, acid apples, ascorbic acid, dog rose, cocoa, chocolate, broths);
- with a congenital malfunction in the exchange of oxalic acid, manifested in the form of urolithiasis or inflammatory lesions of the kidneys;
- with pyelonephritis;
- in diabetes mellitus;
- for ulcerative colitis;
- for inflammatory bowel disease;
- for poisoning with ethylene glycol( eg, antifreeze or brake fluid).
Oxalate crystals often damage the mucosa, causing irritation of the urinary tract and microhematuria. That is why, when found in the urine sample, it is recommended to include in the child's diet:
- abundant drink( not less than a liter of water per day);
- dishes and food products, which include magnesium( squid, herring, millet, sea kale, oats);
- vitamins of group B( in particular, vitamin B6).
3. Phosphates are salts that, in some cases, can be found in the sediment of the urine of a healthy child. As a rule, this occurs when the acidity of urine caused by overeating decreases. In general, the phosphate content in the urinary sediment increases:
- when eating foods and foods rich in phosphorus( caviar, fish, oatmeal, milk, milk and sour milk products, buckwheat, pearl barley, alkaline mineral water);
- with alkaline urine reaction;
- with gastric lavage;
- for cystitis;
- when vomiting;
- with Fanconi syndrome;
- with fever;
- for hyperparathyroidism.
When a child finds phosphate in his urine, it is necessary to immediately exclude from his diet foods rich in vitamin D and calcium( fatty milk and sour milk products, fatty fish, liver and fish eggs, eggs).
In addition to those listed, the following types of salts may be present in the urine of the child:
- calcium sulfate( with diabetes mellitus, with benzoic or salicylic acid, with frequent use of cranberries);
- salts of hippuric acid( with liver diseases, diabetes, kidney stones, putrefactive processes in the body, excessive consumption of plant foods and antipyretic drugs);
- salts of urate ammonium( with uric acid infarction).
Preventing the appearance of salts in the urine of a child is quite simple. To do this, it is necessary to establish for him a diet that would dramatically reduce the number and frequency of eating foods that can trigger the onset and development of pathology. Of course, this does not mean that the child should stop eating meat, broths, liver, dairy and other vital foods. It is only necessary to pay close attention to the fact that their portions do not exceed the maximum allowable daily rate. So, for example, during the day a child can eat no more than 90 grammes or less than 50 grams. In this case, the liver can be eaten no more than twice a week.
In the same cases when in the course of laboratory studies in the urine sediment of a child were identified certain salts, it is recommended to completely exclude provoking products from the children's menu and begin to monitor that the child daily drank at least a liter of filtered still water. After the level of salts in the urine comes back to normal, you need to completely reconsider your views on the diet of the child and begin to accustom him to a balanced, healthy diet.