Compression fracture is a common trauma of the spine, as well as a number of located ligaments, discs, muscles, nerve endings, spinal cord. The most severe consequence of the fracture is paralysis, which leads to the disability of .Most often, a fracture occurs in the lumbar and thoracic spine.
The spine is the most complicated structure, the main structures of which are vertebrae. In total, there are 32 to 34. Between them there are cartilaginous discs that perform the function of shock absorbers.
Flexibility, mobility and, at the same time, strength of the spine attach ligaments and muscles. In the spinal column there is a spinal canal filled with the spinal cord. Spinal nerves leave from it. In total, the spine is divided into five sections.
Compression fracture of the thoracic spine of the occurs for the following reasons:
- Trauma( fall, stroke, etc.);
- Tumor in the spine and metastasis from malignant formations from other organs;
- Osteoporosis, which occurs mainly in the elderly.
Compression fracture of the lumbar spine of the occurs for the same reasons.
The mechanism of injury combines a combination of flexion of the spine and axial load, which leads to increased pressure on the intervertebral discs and the body of the vertebrae.
A strong flattening of the vertebrae in the anterior part can lead to insertion into the spinal canal of their posterior part, which can eventually cause damage to the spinal cord.
Treatment of fracture
- 1 Treatment of fracture
- 2 Symptoms of fracture
- 3 Compression vertebral fracture - consequences
- 4 Rehabilitation after fracture
How to treat compression fracture of the spine ?To save the pain will help conservative therapy. For this purpose, anesthetics are prescribed, special corsets are used, etc. A great importance in recovery is played by the treatment and protection regime, the main principles of which are:
- Restriction of lifting of weights;
- Elimination of sharp turns of the trunk and performance of heavy physical exertion.
At the beginning of the disease, bed rest is shown. Its implementation is especially important for elderly patients with osteoporosis.
On average, the compression fracture fully fuses in 3 months. To trace the process of recovery helps X-ray diagnostics.
If the x-ray shows a compression of the spinal cord or roots, then surgical treatment is indicated. The type of surgery is determined by the doctor and depends on the type of fracture. During the operation, the nerves are decompressed and the damaged part of the spine stabilized.
Symptoms of fracture
Trauma of the spine is accompanied by severe pain, which can give to different parts of the body. The damage to the nerve trunks is evidenced by a feeling of numbness and weakness in the limbs. Injuries, in which the nerve endings of the spinal cord are not involved, often occur asymptomatically and can be accidentally detected on an X-ray.
In the future, the clinical manifestation of the disease depends on the degree of compression fracture of the spine .There are three in total.
- Compression fracture of the spine of the first degree is characterized by a decrease in the height of the vertebral body not more than half its size;
- With a second degree of fracture, the height of the vertebrae becomes half as large;
- The third degree is characterized by a decrease in the height of the vertebra by more than half.
Compression fracture of the spine - consequences of
Consequences of the fracture are:
- Neurological complications that arise:
1 - in case of narrowing of the spinal canal as a result of falling fragments of a fractured vertebra;
2 - in case of damage to the nerve roots, which move away from the spinal cord. Sometimes complications from the nervous system in the form of numbness, reduction in muscle strength, paresthesias occur after a time( days, weeks), which is associated with impaired circulation of the spinal cord due to vascular compression. A common neurological complication is radiculitis. Partial damage to the spinal cord can lead to paresis, and complete damage to paralysis of the limbs.
- Segmental instability occurs when the height of the vertebral body is reduced by half from its true size. The spinal segment is usually referred to as two adjacent vertebrae, an intervertebral disc that is located between them, as well as ligaments and muscles. Compression fracture "blends" the segment and leads to increased mobility of its structures. Segmental instability contributes to the sensation of chronic pain, to degenerative changes in the site of the spine, where a fracture occurred.
- Deformation of the vertebral column in the thoracic spine with the formation of a "hump".Often a similar pathology can be found in elderly women who have an anamnesis of osteoporosis, and in the past had a compression fracture in the thoracic department.
Rehabilitation after fracture of
LFK with compression fracture of spine is the main means of rehabilitation measures. With the help of physiotherapy exercises, damaged vertebrae are restored, pain syndrome decreases.
The exercises for compression fracture of the spine are performed in four stages:
- At the preparatory stage, exercises are performed to improve the functioning of the respiratory system, gastrointestinal tract, etc.
- In the second stage, exercises are added that strengthen the muscles that form the muscular corset.
- The third stage includes exercises with weights. With their help, the body is prepared for vertical loads.
- At the last stage exercises are performed with loads in the standing position.
In addition to exercise therapy will help speed recovery after a fracture: physiotherapy, electro stimulation, massage.