Deformation of the foot, which leads to its flattening, bears the name - flat feet. But what are the causes of this disease of the musculoskeletal system? The human foot is a complex anatomical structure, which is a kind of top of evolution, if, of course, believe the works of Charles Darwin. Today the problem of flatfoot is well studied, which allows to determine the algorithm of preventive actions for improving the state of health.
- 1 External and internal causes of flatfoot
- 1.1 Endogenous factors
- 1.2 Endogenous factors
- 2 Plane feather complications
- 3 Flatfoot diagnostics
- 4 Flatfoot prevention
- 5 Flatfoot treatments
External and internal causes of flatfoot
Despite the fact that in normal life the foot defect is smallwho pay attention, it is worth knowing the features of your disease for the effectiveness of corrective measures. The causes of this ailment can be both endogenous( within the body) and exogenous( external factors).Often, the disease has a mixed etiology, given the rhythm of our lives and disregard for our wardrobe. So even the most common sneakers can cause a foot defect. How does this happen? The sole of the sneakers is equipped with a good shock absorption, so they take on all the load, firmly fixing and not loading the heel. As a result, the muscles of the foot relax and are not subjected to intensive physical exertion. As a result, the muscular system weakens, and "favorable" conditions for the development of flat feet develop.
Returning to internal causes of this disease, it is worth noting a number of provoking factors:
- Associated diseases of , among which first place is occupied by arthritis, in particular rheumatoid. It is able to affect not only the cartilage in the joints, but also the ligaments that support the foot. Inflammatory arthritis causes not only pain, but also is able to change the shape of the foot, making it flat.
- Injuries to the , which can lead to a change in the tone of the muscle fiber. If the ligaments are torn, then the foot becomes flat and painful. This usually occurs when the ligaments in the middle of the foot( Lisfranc's joint) are damaged, but can also occur in the posterior part of the foot. In addition to ligament injuries, fractures and dislocations of the bones of the middle foot can also lead to flat feet.
- The genetic burden of is the presence of a similar medical problem in the genus.
Exogenous factors that can lead to a weakening of the muscular system can be prevented by following the hygiene of shoe selection and taking good care of one's health. And so, to external reasons it is necessary to carry:
- Long physical load on the legs, which is often a cost to one or another profession.
- Hormonal failure, pregnancy( displacement of the center of gravity and increased load), lifting of heavy objects.
- Wrong shoes. And here the height of the heel is of special importance. So the use of shoes at low speed contributes to the appearance of a defect, as well as the wearing of boots or shoes with a heel, the height of which is more than four centimeters. In both cases, the habitual dynamics of the body is disrupted, the muscles of the foot are overstrained, and flat feet develop.
- Insufficient physical activity. This reason is especially relevant among people whose work is related to office activities: physical inactivity, sitting position of the body for a long period of time.
For a better understanding of the complications of flatfoot, you can draw an analogy with an incorrect bite that is formed when the normal position of the teeth is disturbed. So in the case of the foot, the pathological structure of the arch leads to a general displacement of all structures of the musculoskeletal system. As a result of decreasing depreciation, the lumbar spine suffers, which is fraught with the development of intervertebral hernia, protrusions( the vertebral disc is pressed into the canal) and other diseases. In addition, pathological dynamics is observed in the work of the knee, which experiences a borderline muscle tension, sometimes imperceptible to humans.
Since the main feature of flatfoot is its gradual development, the problems in the work of other joints are often not associated with foot diseases, but in vain. At the same time, there is increased mobility in the knee, inflammatory processes in the meniscus and arthrosis of varying severity can be observed. Not the last place in the hierarchy of complications of flat feet is occupied by pelvic diseases and pathologies of the neurological profile: neuralgia, etc. The muscular system suffers in the first place, which affects the symmetry of the limbs.
Diagnostics of flatfoot
Despite the fact that all the symptoms of the disease so to say "face", to confirm or deny the diagnosis - flat feet, you need to go through a thorough diagnosis. As a rule, the doctor conducts the examination of the patient, collects a detailed anamnesis and palpates the deformed foot. In the future, according to the indications, an x-ray examination of the feet is performed.
A typical method for diagnosing flatfoot is planography, or a graphic print of the plantar surface of the feet. An important point is the measurement of the external parameters of the foot, in order to calculate the longitudinal and transverse indices of the arch. The patient himself at home can identify flat feet, stepping barefooted on the floor with his bare feet. If the trace does not have the usual "dredging", there is every reason to suspect the development of flat feet.
- The leg does not fit into the shoes customary up to this time.
- Corns and bones appeared.
- Appearance of edema and severe fatigue in the legs by the end of the day.
- By doing the usual sit-ups, a person can not keep his balance.
- Strange walk, which is accompanied by a violation of posture.
- Shoes wear faster from the inside, not behind the heel.
In any case, do not engage in self-treatment and self-diagnosis, only a qualified doctor is able to deliver the correct diagnosis and prescribe the optimal treatment.
Like any other disease, flatfoot is easier to prevent, especially if there is every reason to talk about hereditary predisposition. In this case, it is necessary to choose the optimal work, where the legs will not be strongly overloaded. Wearing orthopedic insoles will improve the condition of the arch of the foot. Hygiene of the feet and proper shoes with a heel of not more than 4 cm, are components of simple prevention.
How can I not remember the words from the song: "I recognize the sweet on the gait," because it is of great importance for the musculoskeletal system. It is not recommended to plant socks when walking, as this leads to excessive strain on the muscles of the inner edge of the leg.
- Warm foot baths after work.
- Gymnastics for feet.
- Walking barefoot on a structured surface: coarse carpet, pebbles, sand, grass, etc.
- Reduce the time spent on shoes with high heels( only on holidays and special events).
- Do not overload stops.
- Keep your feet warm, excluding cooling in the winter.
Panacea for all diseases - a rational vitaminized diet and an active lifestyle! Only not excessively active in this case, which excludes a heavy load on the tendon of the posterior tibial muscle.
Plane stump therapy
Although in adults, flatfoot therapy is no longer possible with some methods that can be used up to 16 years, but there are still a number of measures needed to take action. They are primarily aimed at reducing the discomfort of the disease, preventing its further development and consequences.
As is known, traditional medicine uses non-surgical methods of treatment, and flatfoot therapy is no exception. The main emphasis is on the rejection of problem shoes, the use of orthopedic insoles to correct the defect. If the patient complains of pain, then it is rational to use non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs that stop the pain and reduce the activity of inflammation in the joint.
- Dosage of physical activity.
In case of ineffectiveness of conservative treatment or advanced stage of the disease, resort to an operative intervention in order to return the foot to a physiologically correct position.
- Osteotomy - method of incision of ligaments and stabilization of the foot.
- Transposition of the tendon is the plastic of the damaged tendon.
- Synovectomy and others