19Feb

Hypercalcemia: symptoms, causes, diagnosis, treatment

As you know, all parameters in the human body have certain norms, and their maintenance is called homeostasis. When there is a pathology, there is a change in these or other parameters, which leads to disruption of all organs and systems. You should know what is hypercalcemia, in order to be able to prevent it in yourself or the baby.

Hypercalcemia is a disease characterized by an increase in the level of total calcium in the blood of more than 3 mmol / l. In addition, a blood test for biochemistry, shows an increase in the concentration of ionized calcium, over 1.2-1.5 mmol / l.

Excess of calcium as a cause of hypercalcemia Often, such a picture is a consequence of the body's response to some pathological process. The disease can be acute and chronic, which leads to the depletion of all energy reserves of vital organ systems. In addition, the etiology of this process is different in many cases. So in children, hypercalcemia can be a side effect of vitamin D overdose.

The adult body has other response mechanisms, so increasing the calcium saturation in the blood should be regarded as an important "signal" for help.

Content

  • 1 Symptoms of hypercalcemia
    • 1.1 Symptoms in adults
    • 1.2 Symptoms in children
  • 2 Causes of hypercalcemia
  • 3 Diagnostics
  • 4 Treatment

Symptoms of hypercalcemia

Symptoms in adults

For the acute stage of disease in adults, tend to rapidly flow with pronounced symptoms:

  • unquenchable thirst(the patient constantly wants to drink) 4
  • increased frequency of urination;
  • stool disorder;
  • nausea and vomiting that do not bring relief;
  • instability of blood pressure;
  • increases the heart rate, arrhythmia.

As a result of increased dehydration is an intensive dehydration of the body, against which the blood pressure drops sharply until the appearance of a collapoid state. Later the patient falls into a stupor( kind of impellent disorder): muscle tone is reduced, mental and physical inhibition, can not respond to the voice, weakened pain reactions.

In the chronic course of the disease, all clinical symptoms develop gradually. The pathogenesis of constant thirst is related to the fact that the body quickly loses moisture, which is excreted with a large amount of urine. Why is this happening? The whole point is that an increase in the level of calcium leads to a violation of water-salt metabolism and a decrease in the concentration ability of the kidneys. On the part of the nervous system, dizziness, headaches, drowsiness, confusion and psychosis occur.

Symptoms of hypercalcemia

Symptoms in children

They are associated with the toxic effect of calcium on general processes inside the body. Given the anamnestic data, the pediatrician prescribes a blood test to determine the concentration of calcium in the blood. When hypervitaminosis D, there is a violation of calcium metabolism with deposition of it on the vascular wall.

Since hypercalcemia in pediatrics is most common in children up to a year, it's time to get acquainted with the key symptoms of the pathological condition.

Symptoms in infants :

  • sleep disturbance, anxiety.
  • children are irritable, react sharply to sound and light.
  • is often observed apathic states. Regurgitation of
  • with repeated vomiting.
  • stool disorders: constipation or liquid bowel movements.
  • shortness of breath.
  • a sharp decrease in weight, hypotrophy.
  • signs of toxicosis with exsicosis.
  • signs of kidney failure.

Young parents in the presence of such symptoms in the baby should promptly seek help from the hospital for timely and adequate treatment.

Reasons for hypercalcemia

As already explained, the causes of this condition in children are usually an increased amount of vitamin D, as well as an excess of parathyroid hormone in the blood. Hypervitaminosis D appears most often due to an overdose of this vitamin in the prevention of rickets. Also important is the presence of sunlight, for the processing of vitamin. And in some cases, the cause is increased sensitivity to the drug, which leads to hypervitaminosis, even with the correct amount of intake of it into the body.

In a situation with adults, it is worthwhile to single out several reasons that can become a "trigger" mechanism for the development of hypercalcemia:

  • Weighed down heredity.
  • Oncological pathologies that have localization mainly in the area of ​​the mammary glands and lungs.
  • Hypophosphatemia or lowering of phosphate levels in the blood.
  • Diseases of the blood( leukemia, myeloma).
  • Active calcium adsorption in the digestive tract.
  • Pathology of the endocrine system, in particular, increased production of parathyroid hormone in the parathyroid glands.
  • Osteoporosis, leaching of calcium from bones.
  • Burnett syndrome - with excessive intake of calcium - containing drugs and dairy products.

In addition, do not forget that the weakened immunity and reduced reactive defenses of the body contribute to the development of such pathologies.

Diagnosis

For the correct diagnosis it is rational to conduct such studies:

  • General blood test.
  • Biochemical blood test for the determination of calcium, inorganic phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase activity.
  • Urine / feces analysis.
  • For children, a urine sample for carrying out the Sulovich test.
  • ECG.

Based on a general examination, anamnesis and results of laboratory diagnosis, the doctor will be able to confirm or deny the diagnosis, prescribing a special therapy for this condition.

Treatment of

Based on the underlying cause of the disease, adequate treatment will be prescribed to eliminate the etiologic factor: removal of malignant formation, treatment of endocrine diseases, discontinuation of vitamin D intake and others. In addition, the therapy will be aimed at reducing the washing away of calcium from the bones with the help of medications that will hold this element in the bone tissue.

  • Given the degree of dehydration and powerful dehydration, it is necessary to restore the volume of extracellular fluid. For this purpose, iv infusion of up to 3 liters of isotonic sodium chloride solution is carried out for 24 hours under the control of CVP( blood pressure in the right atrium).
  • Diuretics for normalizing water balance and preventing edema.
  • General restorative treatment.
  • Therapy with drugs that help suppress the activity of osteoclasts.

Treatment with folk methods of hypercalcemia does not always give a positive result, especially if the underlying cause of the disease is internal pathology: a tumor, hormonal failure and so on. Therefore, do not self-medicate! Only timely access to specialists for help can guarantee a quick recovery with minimal residual effects, based on the stage and type of hypercalcemia.

In exceptional cases, if the process is neglected, an operation to remove parathyroid glands or kidney transplantation may be required.