The concept of dysbacteriosis( dysboz) of the intestine implies a persistent violation in it of the quantitative composition of beneficial and pathogenic microorganisms. This digestive disorder is quite common, and it occurs equally in both male and female representatives of different age categories. Determine the presence of dysbacteriosis at an early stage is not possible, since it is characterized by an asymptomatic course.
The human intestine normally contains a certain number of "useful" microorganisms that participate in the act of digestion, maintaining the defenses of the body, and the synthesis of certain vitamins. Violation of such a balance in the body can cause serious diseases.
- 1 Symptoms
- 2 Reasons
- 3 Diagnosis
- 4 Treatment
- 4.1 Drug therapy
- 4.2 Diet
- 4.3 Folk remedies
The nature of the main manifestations of imbalance of the intestinal microflora in an adult depends on the specific stage of the dysbiosis.
- For the initial stage of imbalance of microflora is characterized by a subtle disturbance of the balance of intestinal microflora. Most often, such a violation is caused by a short-term intake of antibacterial drugs. No typical complaints at this stage a person does not show. In rare cases, rumbling in the abdomen may occur, which can disappear after the antibiotic is stopped.
- The next stage of dysbiosis is not so inconspicuous for a person as compared to the first one. The second stage is characterized by a complete or partial disappearance of appetite, the appearance of nausea, an unpleasant aftertaste in the mouth, flatulence, as well as a violation of the stool to the side of constipation or vice versa diarrhea. Similar symptoms are also characteristic of some other diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, but most often it indicates exactly the imbalance of microflora in the large intestine.
- The formation of characteristic for the 3rd stage of symptoms, speaks of the need to initiate appropriate treatment aimed at maintaining the balance of beneficial and pathogenic bacteria in the intestine. The key factor in the formation of symptoms in this case is the detrimental effect of the products of vital activity of pathogenic microorganisms on the wall of the large intestine. The formed inflammatory process manifests itself in the form of abdominal pain( around the navel), pronounced nausea, lack of appetite, presence in the stool of fragments of undigested food.
- The development of a severe degree of dysbiosis indicates a complete replacement of the positive intestinal microflora by pathogens. Such a condition can cause a violation of absorption of many nutrients and vitamins. Often the true companions of dysbiosis are anemia, beriberi, and a persistent decrease in immunity. In addition to digestive disorders, the fourth stage of dysbiosis is characterized by the appearance of insomnia, chronic fatigue, apathy, down to a depressive state. Severe course of dysbiosis can cause serious pathological conditions in the human body.
It is important that the degree of expression of characteristic symptoms depends on the influence of various factors, among which one can single out the lifestyle of the person himself, his immune status, and the general state of the body. The same dose of antibacterial drug is able to cause dysbacteriosis of different severity in different people, depending on the individual characteristics of the organism.
The main causes of the imbalance of microflora in the large intestine are:
- the most common is dysbiosis after antibiotics, namely their uncontrolled use;
- frequent use of alcohol;
- regular use in food and drink chlorinated water;
- hormonal imbalance and violation of deceit substances( excess weight);
- decrease in acidity of gastric juice;
- previous gastric surgery( resection);
- diverticula of skin and duodenum;
- acute intestinal obstruction;
- chronic pancreatitis, peptic ulcer of stomach and duodenum, gastritis;
- weakened immunity;
- previously transmitted intestinal infections( poisoning);
- prevalence in the daily diet of carbohydrate food, and a lack of vegetable and sour-milk components;
- regular stress;
- inadequate hand and food hygiene;
- is a chronic inflammatory disease in the body.
The doctor-gastroenterologist is engaged in the diagnosis of this diagnosis, as well as the subsequent treatment. Preliminary diagnosis is made on the basis of patient complaints. To confirm the diagnosis of dysbiosis, it is necessary to conduct a number of the following additional studies:
- EGD - study, or gastroscopy, which allows to obtain a visual picture of the state of the walls of the stomach and duodenum;
- Rectoromanoscopy , which allows to exclude organic pathology of the colon at a length of about 30 cm. The study is carried out using a special instrument( rectoscope), which is inserted into the rectum;
- Irrigoscopy .This method implies the acquisition of an X-ray of the large intestine, in which a radiopaque substance was previously introduced.
- Colonoscopy .This method is a kind of analogue of sigmoidoscopy, except that the site of the intestinal gut has an extent of up to 1 meter.
In order to treat dysbacteriosis with maximum efficiency, drug therapy must necessarily be carried out in combination with a special diet."Formula of success" in the treatment of imbalance intestinal microflora contains only two links:
- Complete elimination of the negative impact factor( antibiotics).
- Elimination of imbalance by artificial replenishment of a population of beneficial bacteria in the large intestine.
The first item of the list of drugs used are antibiotics, which are indicated for use in cases of excessive contamination of the pathogenic microflora in the large intestine. The best option would be broad-spectrum antibacterial drugs. In particularly severe cases, it is advisable to prescribe antibiotics of the tetracycline series, fluoroquinolones, and cephalosporins. If the imbalance of the intestinal microflora proceeds in a less severe form, then antibacterial drugs can be replaced by more sparing antimicrobial drugs( furazolidone).
With dysbacteriosis, the average duration of treatment with antibiotics is from 7 to 10 days. After passing the course of antibacterial therapy, an obligatory condition is the intake of enterosorbents, which will clear the lumen of the intestine from the products of the disintegration of pathogenic microorganisms.
To improve the digestive process, enzyme preparations such as Mezim or Creon are used, as well as hepatoprotective agents( Essentiale).To normalize the lost motor function of the intestine, special stimulants of peristalsis( Trimedat) are used.
And, of course, the most important point of the plan for treating the imbalance of microflora is the restoration of the natural ratio of bacteria in the large intestine. In this issue, the following groups of drugs are helpful:
- Probiotics .This group of medicines contains in its composition a natural culture of beneficial bacteria, which normally inhabit the lumen of the large intestine of a person, and participate in the act of digestion. The most striking representative of this series is the Linex preparation, which contains natural lactobacilli bacteria. The reception of this drug stimulates the colonization of the lumen of the large intestine with a useful microflora, and ensures its further growth and reproduction.
- Prebiotics .This group of drugs is a kind of nutrient substrate, which creates favorable conditions for the growth of beneficial microorganisms in the intestine.
- Syndiotics .This group of drugs is a combination of prebiotics and probiotics. The most striking representative is Normoflorin.
- In addition to the main therapy, it is necessary to include the intake of immunostimulatory drugs , as well as of vitamin preparations .
There are several basic principles of dietotherapy for dysbiosis:
- The daily diet should be observed.
- The therapeutic diet for dysbacteriosis should be balanced in the protein-energy ratio. In the daily diet should be present a sufficient amount of dietary fiber.
- An obligatory condition is the daily use of fermented milk products containing lacto- and bifidobacteria in their composition.
- The composition of the diet should be based on the individual tolerability of those or other foods. If the human body does not absorb any product, then it should be completely excluded from the diet.
If all manifestations of fermental dyspepsia prevail in the symptoms of dysbacteriosis, then the diet should limit or completely eliminate the consumption of foods rich in carbohydrates( baking, potatoes, confectionery, whole milk, raw vegetables).To the use recommended boiled meat, steamed dishes, cottage cheese, cereals.
If in dysbacteriosis putrefactive processes prevail in the intestine, then in the diet should be sharply limited consumption of protein and fatty foods. Recommended for use are sour-milk products, cereals and boiled vegetables in a wipe form. A compote made from fresh fruit or dried fruit will also help to suppress the processes of decay in the lumen of the large intestine.
If the imbalance of microflora is accompanied by constipation, then it is necessary to ensure sufficient intake of plant fiber in the body. Boiled and fresh vegetables are good stimulants for food in the intestines. A good effect is wheat bran.
If diarrhea predominates in the symptoms of a dysbacteriosis, then the daily diet should consist of boiled and wiped food, moderate temperature. Compotes made of blueberries and cherry can help cope with the problem of liquid stool.
As a good supplement to the basic treatment and diet therapy, you can use some advice of traditional medicine that will help to cope with the main manifestations of imbalance of microflora in the large intestine.
Tool number 1 .A powerful bactericidal agent that can suppress the growth of pathogenic microflora in the intestines is ordinary garlic. The period of daily use should be at least 2 weeks. To suppress putrefactive processes in the intestine, it is sufficient to use 1 clove of garlic 1-2 times a day. You can consume garlic both during meals and before meals, washed down with water or kefir.
Tool number 2 .Such a popular and useful product of beekeeping as propolis, due to its bactericidal properties, can eliminate putrefactive and fermenting processes in the intestines as soon as possible, and also suppress the growth of pathogenic bacteria. It is enough to take 15-20 drops of alcohol tincture of propolis 2 times a day before eating. The tincture is used in diluted form. You can use drinking water or milk for this. The course of treatment is 3-4 weeks.
Tool number 3. Do not forget about medicinal herbs that have a pronounced antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effect. Infusions of herbs, mother-and-stepmother, eucalyptus, St. John's wort, sage and chamomile are able to suppress the growth and multiplication of pathogens, viruses and fungi in the intestine. To achieve maximum effect, it is necessary to prepare a medicinal harvest from the above mentioned herbs. To do this, take a mix of 1 teaspoon of each herb.1 tbsp. The resulting mixture is poured with 2 cups of boiling water, and infused for 40 minutes. The resulting infusion should be filtered and used warmly on a quarter cup 3 times a day before eating.
Of course, more detailed information on the methods of treating dysbacteriosis can be obtained from a gastroenterologist who will use an individual approach.