Thyroid ( lat. Thyroid) - is one of the largest endocrine glands in the body. The gland is located in the neck, below the mouth next to the thyroid cartilage. The thyroid gland controls the metabolism in the body - the rate of energy burning, the rate of protein synthesis and the degree of sensitivity of the organism to other hormones. It performs these functions with the help of thyroid hormones produced - thyroxine( T4) and triiodothyronine( T3).These hormones play an important biological role for the body, they stimulate metabolism, regulate the production of energy and heat, puberty, significantly affect the nervous system, skeleton and muscles.
Very important is the normal functioning of the thyroid gland during pregnancy, because its hormones contribute to the growth and development of the fetus, especially the central nervous system and bones, which due to these hormones are properly saturated with minerals.
The correct functioning of the thyroid gland is controlled by the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland.
Diseases of the thyroid gland are 8-10 times more common in women than in men. This is due to the peculiarities of the nervous system( since the fairer sex is more emotional, so that depression and stress are more likely to occur), as well as fluctuations in the hormonal background associated with the menstrual cycle, menopause, or pregnancy.
Among the diseases thyroid is the most common:
- thyroiditis - inflammation of the thyroid gland( including Hashimoto's thyroiditis);
- thyroid cancer.
- 1 Symptoms
- 1.1 Inflammation of the thyroid gland( thyroiditis)
- 1.2 Hypothyroidism
- 1.3 Hyperthyroidism
- 1.4 Goitre and thyroid nodules
- 1.5 Cancer
- 2 Photos symptoms of thyroid disease in women
thyroid In various diseases, somesymptoms are common( hair loss, trembling, menstrual irregularity), but the rest are usually directly opposite( constipation and diarrhea, heart palpitations and slowed down, set and weight loss).
Inflammation of the thyroid( thyroiditis)
There are acute, subacute and chronic forms of thyroiditis.
Acute inflammation of is often associated with severe pain and fever. It can be diagnosed with ultrasound. An aspiration biopsy may also be necessary to detect pathogenic microorganisms. Therapy is performed with the help of antibiotics;with timely diagnosis or ineffective treatment may need surgery.
What is the cause of subacute thyroiditis( thyroiditis de Cerven) is in most cases unclear;most often a viral infection is suspected. This disease is associated with symptoms such as varying degrees of pain, fatigue and mild fever.
Chronic thyroiditis( Hashimoto's thyroiditis) is an autoimmune disease. The thyroid gland is attacked by the body's immune system, the result of which is the destruction of the tissue of the gland itself. Existing glandular cells are replaced with a connective tissue. Symptoms can occur suddenly or slowly and progressively( in most cases):
- gain in weight;
- poor concentration;
- ringing in the ears;
- influenza-like symptoms;
- dry skin and mucous membranes( possibly in combination with another autoimmune disease - dryness syndrome);
- skin problems( rash, discoloration);
- hair loss;
- muscle and joint pain;
- elevated cholesterol;
- disorders of the menstrual cycle;
Often the disease is detected too late, and precious time is lost in order to initiate timely treatment. Patients often undergo a series of studies among physicians of various specialties, until finally a diagnosis is established. The disease is chronic, and relapses can occur repeatedly.
usually does not save. Hypothyroidism is a violation of the normal functioning of the thyroid gland, due to which hormones are produced in insufficient quantities for the body's needs. Hypothyroidism can occur due to lesions that occur mainly in the thyroid gland( primary hypothyroidism), abnormalities in the pituitary and hypothalamus( secondary hypothyroidism), or in connection with the effects of peripheral tissue resistance on the action of thyroid hormones. The following symptoms occur:
- extreme sensitivity to cold and accordingly chills;
- persistent fatigue and lethargy;
- problems with concentration;
- reduced labor productivity;
- swollen eyelids;
- weight gain, despite rational nutrition;
- is a disorder of the menstrual cycle.
Symptoms of hypothyroidism can vary in intensity from mild to very severe. People with mild symptoms of hypothyroidism may not pay attention to them, and if the problem is not found and treatment is started, the disease can develop imperceptibly. The consequences of severe hypothyroidism can include heart disease, infertility, and in very severe cases even to whom.
Hyperthyroidism is a syndrome that occurs as a result of increased secretion of thyroid hormones. Depending on the presence of changes in the thyroid itself, primary and secondary hyperthyroidism are distinguished. Graves' disease is an example of primary thyroid hyperparathyroidism. The cause of hyperthyroidism in general, and Graves' disease, in particular, may be disorders in the functioning of the nervous system( eg anxiety, anger, anxiety), severe trauma, pregnancy, sexual dysfunction, hormonal disorders during menopause, any acute or chronic infectious disease. Hyperthyroidism is accompanied by the following symptoms:
- restlessness, irritability, nervousness, tremor, internal tension;
- lack of concentration;
- increased sweating;
- poor heat transfer;
- moist skin;
- heart problems: heart failure, constantly increased heart rate( pulse in a calm state above 90 beats per minute), sometimes irregular pulse of moderate hypertension;
- weight loss, despite a good appetite;
- frequent stools, sometimes diarrhea;
- depressed mood, depression;
- eye symptoms: swollen eyelids, foreign body sensation in the eyes, increased lacrimation, eye movement disorders( endocrine ophthalmopathy).
Goiter and thyroid nodules
Goiter is an enlargement of the thyroid gland. As a rule, it is caused by iodine deficiency, which is observed especially during pregnancy and lactation, when the body's needs for this element increase. The thyroid gland increases when trying to compensate for the lack of iodine. If the deficit is not eliminated, it can lead to the appearance of hot or cold nodes and thyroid dysfunction.
Symptoms, as a rule, appear only visually. If the goiter is very large, it can press on the trachea and cause difficulty breathing, especially during exercise. For the same reason, there may be difficulties in swallowing, and hoarseness, which is due to irritation of the recurrent laryngeal nerve.
Thyroid cancer is a malignant tumor. Among the causes of this tumor are the main effects of ionizing radiation and hereditary factors.
No symptoms that would be unique to thyroid cancer. There are, however, some features that increase the risk of its occurrence. The appearance of such symptoms along with changes in the thyroid in the patient is an indication for an urgent diagnosis of cancer. They include: rapid growth of the tumor and its movement, the appearance of enlarged lymph glands on the neck, hoarseness. In the case of neglected forms, cancer can lead to compression of the respiratory system and the occurrence of dyspnea.
If you find the above symptoms of thyroid disease, you need to contact a doctor-endocrinologist to make a diagnosis. Early diagnosis and the beginning of qualified treatment contribute to an early and full recovery.
Photo of symptoms of thyroid disease in women
Learn about the methods of treating these diseases.