19Feb

What means the lowered maintenance of thrombocytes in a blood?

Blood is the internal environment of the body. All of its cellular elements ensure the permanence of metabolic processes and homeostasis. While they are coping with their task, there are no pathological abnormalities. But due to various reasons, there is a loss of cellular elements of blood, which adversely affects the condition of the whole organism. This happens when the platelets are lower than normal. The condition can not be attributed to the urgent, but in some situations it can play a decisive role in the possibility of preserving the life of the patient.

Why platelets are needed and what is their norm

Thrombocyte cells in the vascular space serve as a kind of supervisor for his integrity. If the wall of the vessel, where they are at a particular time, is not damaged, the platelets move freely with the blood stream, being in a spherical shape. It is worth the inner lining of the vessel( endothelium) to break its structure, as instantly there are changes in the appearance of the platelet. It acquires stellate form, closing the defect of the endothelial layer. Thus, by overlapping one another, the platelets create a framework for the formation of a blood clot, which leads to the stopping of bleeding. At the same time they are allocated special coagulation factors, which contribute to faster blood clotting.

The normal content of peripheral blood platelets is from 150 to 400 g / l. Saying that the platelets are lowered, they mean their decrease in the blood test is less than the average volume of 150 g / l. Physicians call this state one term - thrombocytopenia. If this happens, the blood loses its ability to fold, which is the basis of clinical manifestations of thrombocytopenia. The more reduced the level of platelets, the stronger the manifestations of this condition.

Which tests determine thrombocytopenia

A study that is conducted to confirm or exclude thrombocytopenia with an accurate determination of platelet count is called a blood test for platelet count. To conduct it, blood is taken from the finger in the general analysis or from the vein. The specific method is chosen by the patient depending on the diagnostic capabilities of the laboratory. No special preparations are required. Be sure to adhere to the general rules, like before taking blood for any analysis( it is better to conduct the study in the morning on an empty stomach, eliminate overeating the day before, alcohol, hypothermia or overheating of the body, strong physical strain).

What does and why there is thrombocytopenia

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The reduced content of platelets can be, both an independent disease, and act as a symptom of various pathological conditions. Therefore, patients with thrombocytopenia should be carefully examined to exclude all possible health problems. Basically, they can be divided into three sections:

  1. The drop in the level of blood platelets, as a consequence of their insufficient production of bone marrow;
  2. Thrombocytopenia caused by inferiority and accelerated destruction of platelets;
  3. Disruption of platelet distribution in the vascular bed. This means that the true number of platelets is normal, but in the peripheral blood they are determined little.

Why thrombocytopenia occurs, and the mechanisms of its development are given in the form of a table.

Congenital thrombocytopenia. It occurs as a result of mutations of certain genes. As a rule, in addition to reducing the number of platelets, there are various anomalies. These causes are manifested with the birth of
  1. Fanconi Syndrome;
  2. Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome;
  3. Berner-Soulier Syndrome;
  4. Isolated thrombocytopenia;
  5. Hemolytic conditions in newborns;
  6. Heart defects;
  7. Prematurity of the child, especially with a burdened pregnancy( toxicosis, preeclampsia).
Insufficient production of platelets by the bone marrow
  1. Aplastic and hypoplastic anemia( erythrocytes and platelets emanate from a single bone marrow);
  2. Megaloblastic anemia against a background of deficiency of vitamin B12 and folic acid;
  3. Viral and bacterial infections with bone marrow damage( hepatitis, HIV infection, infectious mononucleosis, rickettsiosis, toxoplasmosis);
  4. Leukemia( acts as a frequent cause);
  5. Radiation sickness and exposure to radioactive radiation;
  6. Chemotherapy;
  7. Side effects of medications( antibiotics, antituberculosis drugs, glucocorticoid hormones, antidepressants).
Accelerated platelet destruction
  1. Verlof disease( thrombocytopenic purpura idiopathic) - massive destruction of platelets for no apparent reason;
  2. Thrombocytopenia on the background of autoimmune diseases of a systemic nature( lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis).In this case, antibodies to their own platelets are produced in the body, which leads to their destruction;
  3. Severe intoxication by toxic substances;
  4. Prosthetic heart valves and extracorporeal detoxification( hemodialysis procedures);
  5. Uremia in decompensated renal failure;
  6. Syndrome of disseminated intravascular coagulation;
  7. Hypersplenism - increased destruction of platelets by an enlarged spleen;
  8. Hemolysis after a blood transfusion or its components.
Pathological distribution of platelets between peripheral blood and internal organs that are their depot( liver, spleen)
  1. Decompensated heart failure;
  2. Splenomegaly - an increase in the volume and size of the spleen. A significant part of the platelets is retained in the pathologically altered organ;
  3. Hepatomegaly - marked increase in the volume and size of the liver;
  4. Cirrhosis of the liver and portal hypertension, leading to a delay in blood in the venous system of internal organs.

Clinical manifestations of

disease Suspected of a decrease in platelets in the blood will help such symptoms:

  1. Long bleeding after minor damage;
  2. The formation of large bruises and bruises with minor bruises;
  3. Bleeding gums for no apparent reason;
  4. Small spotted hemorrhages on the skin in the form of rashes that tend to merge into large spots;
  5. Persistent nasal bleeding and hemorrhage in the conjunctiva of the eye against a background of normal blood pressure;
In most cases, a slight decrease in platelets does not occur. This leaves this state unnoticed for a long time. Only a critical lowering of platelets or, accidentally, a blood test may lead to an idea of ​​the existing problem.
Hemorrhagic rash
Hemorrhagic rash with thrombocytopenia

Than one can help

Because a large number of diseases can be hidden behind thrombocytopenia, any case of its detection requires specialized care. Ideally, each patient should be consulted by a hematologist( a doctor who deals exclusively with blood diseases).If necessary, an additional set of examinations will be performed, including a microscopic examination of the bone marrow. Only by determining the cause of the decrease in platelets, it is possible to say with certainty what to do in a particular situation and begin treatment of this problem. Methods of assistance can be as follows:

Nature of activities Specific actions and preparations
Emergency care. It is indicated in cases of bleeding against a background of thrombocytopenia of any severity. The main goal is to stop the blood loss. Patients are given hemostatic drugs( aminocaproic acid, etamzilate, vikasol), transfusion of donor platelet mass is performed. After stabilization, the patient is examined and scheduled treatment is prescribed.
Treatment of autoimmune purpura and Werlhof's disease Hormonal preparations of the glucocorticosteroid series( methylprednisolone, prednisolone, dexamethasone, solu-cortef, cortinef).
Elimination of thrombocytopenia in hypersplenism and increased destruction of platelets by the spleen Surgical treatment is performed in the form of splenectomy( removal of the spleen).Almost always helps to raise platelets.
Elimination of major diseases in which thrombocytopenia is only their symptom Chemotherapy for leukemia and autoimmune diseases. Platinum preparations( vinblastine, vincristine) and other groups are used.
Stimulators of platelet synthesis by bone marrow
  1. Revolide - specific thrombopoietin;
  2. Cyanocobalamin( vitamin B12);
  3. Folic acid;
  4. General biostimulants( actovegin, solcoseryl, aloe extract, plasmol).
General activities
  1. Abolition of medications that could cause the platelets to be lowered;
  2. Treatment of viral and bacterial infections;
  3. Balanced vitaminized nutrition;
  4. Refusal from alcohol and tobacco smoking;
  5. Physiotherapy exercises and physical doses;
  6. Reception of multivitamin complexes( vitrum, quadevit, duovite, etc.).

Interesting video:

It is unacceptable to try to overcome thrombocytopenia by yourself. This problem requires a serious approach and a qualified expert evaluation.