19Feb

Symptoms of gastric ulcer: complications of the disease and their symptoms

Ulcerous lesions of the gastric mucosa - a recurrent disease that develops as a result of erosion or helicobacter pylori. There are one or more points of lesion of the mucosa. Often the cause of the development of this disease can be stress, during which there are spasms of muscles. This happens against the background of a nervous strain. The disease is mainly young men aged 20 to 40 years. Recognize the disease can be on the characteristic symptomatology, although often it is asymptomatic. In such cases, the diagnosis is made after careful clinical studies.

Contents:

  • 1 Why there is an ulcer
  • 2 symptoms
  • 3 nature pain
  • 4 complication of the disease
    • 4.1 perforation of the stomach
    • 4.2 Bleeding
    • 4.3 Malignization
    • 4.4 Stenosis gatekeeper
  • 5 ulcer - a disease serious
  • 6 When surgery is needed

Why there is an ulcer

Stomach ulcer

UlcerThe stomach arises as a result of the influence of the aggressive factors on the mucous membrane.

Ulcer lesions can form on the mucosa due to aggressive factors:

  • Hydrochloric acid
  • Proteolytic enzyme
  • Helicobacter pylori bacteria

This occurs when the mucosa is not protected due to factors such as:

  1. Local immunity
  2. Normal level of prostaglandins
  3. Normal microcirculation

The following factors can affect the occurrence of ulcerative lesions of the gastric mucosa:

  1. Helicobacter pylori infection
  2. Inflamed
  3. mucosa
  4. Hereditary factor
  5. Incorrect nutrition
  6. Stress
  7. Passion for alcohol or smoking
  8. Abuse of fatty or fried food

The main cause of ulcers is a violation of the balance between the internal protective mechanisms of a person and external aggressive factors that affect the gastric mucosa. The gastric mucosa can no longer protect its walls, and hydrochloric acid begins to destroy them.

Symptoms of the disease

Heartburn

Heartburn is one of the symptoms of a stomach ulcer.

Symptoms of stomach ulcer may or may not occur. Asymptomatic course of the disease is observed in 15% of cases and the diagnosis is made already in the late stages, when there is a need for surgical intervention.

Symptoms of the disease are manifested in all patients in different ways. In most cases, the wavy course of the disease is characteristic, when one symptom is replaced by another. The acute period of the disease is replaced by a prolonged remission.

Exacerbation occurs in autumn or spring, when immunity weakens. It lasts from a month to six months, and the period of remission can last several years. The following symptomatology is observed in patients:

  • Pain localizing in the upper abdominal cavity. This symptomatology occurs in more than half of the patients, and a quarter of them have moderate intensity pain, which increases during exercise, after alcohol poisoning, hunger or the consumption of fatty foods.
  • Heartburn, which can be accompanied by a belching. It arises from the fact that the contents of the stomach enter the esophagus. Gastric contents have an acidic environment and irritate the walls of the esophagus. This symptom is observed in 90% of cases, it occurs after eating.
  • Nausea. It occurs due to violations of intestinal motility. It happens immediately after eating, as it digests, the symptom disappears. Sometimes accompanied by prolonged vomiting. After vomiting, the patient feels relieved, so many specifically cause it.
  • Loss of appetite. It arises because of the patient's fear of eating, since pain can occur.
  • Bitter taste in the mouth and burp. Occurs because of entering the oral cavity of gastric contents.
  • Heaviness in the abdomen. Appears after eating food.
  • Constipation and diarrhea. Both symptoms may be present simultaneously or alternately. More than half of all patients have problems with bowel evacuation during the period of exacerbation of the disease.
Read: Medications for stomach and duodenal ulcers: an integrated approach

The nature of pain

Stomach ulcer

Pain in stomach ulcer can manifest immediately after eating.

Depending on the location of the ulcer and the nature of the pain may be:

  1. Early. Appears immediately after eating. Passes after passing food through the gastrointestinal tract, after about 2 hours. The ulcer in this case is located in the upper part of the stomach. Pain of this type can be given to the heart region or localized in a completely different place. Its distinctive feature is only dependence on food intake. With physical loads, it is not connected. The patient becomes easier after taking antacids or dairy products. This pain is accompanied by a belching and heartburn.
  2. Late. When after eating a few hours pass. There is a similar pain in the epigastric region. It is characteristic for the location of the ulcer in the region of small curvature of the stomach. After the stomach has processed all the food, the pain stops. Such pain can also occur after hunger breaks or in the evening. Pain of medium intensity, aching and short, but very often disturbs the patient. When the disease worsens, there is, in addition to pain, nausea and vomiting.
  3. Weak, barely perceptible. Such pain occurs when lesions occur in the area of ​​great curvature. In connection with the incomprehensibility of sensations of this kind, the disease is diagnosed late. Such an ulcer is malignant.
  4. Appearing in the evening. This pain is accompanied by heartburn and eructation. The lesion focus is the antral department.
  5. Intensive seizure. Such pain lasts more than an hour. They are characteristic when the pyloric canal is affected. With food intake, such pains are not related, flow mainly at night or after prolonged starvation.

Sometimes the pain is localized in completely unexpected places:

  • In the lumbar part of
  • In the ileum region of the
  • In the right hypochondrium
  • And in some cases the pain does not appear at all, complicating the diagnosis of the disease.
Read: Culling ulcer: symptoms, causes and diet - how to treat the disease

Complications of the disease

Perforation of the stomach

Perforation of the stomach is one of the complications that carries an ulcer that is not healed.

The ulcer may become complicated and if left untreated, even fatal. Among the pathologies that the untreated ulcer bears:

  1. Penetration of the wall
  2. Perforation of the stomach
  3. Gastric hemorrhage
  4. Pyloric wall
  5. Malinusia
  6. Penetration of the wall

This complication is characterized by the destruction of one of the walls of the stomach, resulting in the bottom is an organ located in close proximity to the destroyed wall:

  • Gallbladder
  • Liver
  • Intestine

Hydrochloric acid, which is released by the stomach, destroys adjacent organs. If the pancreas is affected, it is destroyed, destructive pancreatitis develops. The fact that the patient has begun penetration is indicated by girdling pains, the temperature rises to a critical temperature, the level of amylase increases. The patient exhibits all the symptoms of inflammation and pains that do not depend on the time of day and on the intake of food.

Perforation of the stomach

As a result of the launched ulcerative lesion, one of the walls of the stomach is destroyed, its contents come out, including hydrochloric acid, in the composition of gastric juice. The perforation causes a painful shock in the patient, if not taken immediately, peritonitis develops.

The disease can develop after taking alcohol, due to heavy physical exertion. To the feeling of pain is added weakness. FGS in this condition is contraindicated. If a stomach perforation is suspected, the patient undergoes an X-ray examination or MRI.

About the stomach ulcer, symptoms and treatment, learn from the video:

Bleeding

Gastric bleeding is the most dangerous complication of the ulcer, which often leads to death. The patient is vomiting, in the stool there is blood, it becomes cherry or black. The pressure decreases, the patient's heart rate increases, accompanied by shortness of breath, the body is covered with sweat. In this case, it is necessary to stop the bleeding immediately, otherwise the loss of blood can lead to death.

Malignancy of

Malignancy of the ulcer

Malignancy of ulcers is a degeneration into substandard formations.

This complication is rare. It almost always leads to the growth of a cancerous tumor in the stomach. In general, the ulcers that degenerate into poor-quality formation are regenerated. In this case, the patient begins to lose weight quickly and refuses to eat meat.

Read: Eating with gastric ulcer: what can and can not be fed with ulcerative stomach disease

As the tumor grows, the patient is disturbed by vomiting, sometimes with blood and fever. If the doctor does not pay attention to such a symptomatology in time, the patient may die. If a patient is suspected to have an ulcer degeneration, he needs an urgent examination of the FGS and a biopsy, on which the material from the ulcer walls is taken.

Stenosis of the Doorkeeper

Stenosis of the doorkeeper is a serious complication of an ulcer that is localized in the narrowest part of the stomach - in his pyloric department. This complication occurs when ulcers often recur. The ulcer, located in the narrowest part of the stomach, prevents the normal passage of food.

Ulcer - serious disease

Helicobacter pylori

Helicobacter pylori is the main cause of peptic ulcer.

If the patient has been diagnosed with an ulcer, it can not be started so that it does not become complicated. Treatment is complex. First you need to get rid of the cause of the development of this disease - the Helicobacter pylori bacteria. Simultaneously it is required to remove unpleasant symptoms of this disease: heartburn, nausea and eructation. To do this, reduce the acidity of the stomach with drug therapy.

To eliminate bacteria, take antibacterial drugs, which the doctor appoints a gastroenterologist after the study: sowing, test or serological examination. If you get rid of the bacteria completely fails: after the drug therapy, it descends into the intestines, provoking its inflammation and dysbiosis. They take antacids, proton pump blockers and histamine receptor blockers.

To relieve unpleasant symptoms prescribed antispasmodics, to restore the motor function of the stomach - prokinetics, to restore its microflora - probiotics, to get rid of the depressive condition that can arise due to persistent pain - antidepressants.

When surgery is required

Surgical intervention

Surgical intervention is necessary if treatment does not work.

A patient often needs a surgical procedure to heal an ulcer. This need arises in cases where conservative treatment does not yield results, and the risk of complications is great. If there is a risk of complications such as:

  • Perforated ulcer
  • Stenosis
  • Risk of bleeding
  • Degeneration

If the doctor advises a surgical operation, it should not be postponed, it will help to protect against risks. Gastric ulcer is a serious disease that needs to be treated in a timely manner.


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