Bleeding is the loss of blood from the vascular bed as a result of diseases and traumatic injury. There are several types of bleeding depending on the type of damaged vessel.
- Arterial bleeding occurs when the integrity of large and medium arteries is compromised. Blood from the damaged area follows a rapid pulsating jet, has a scarlet color and leads to a large amount of blood loss in a short period of time.
- Venous bleeding occurs when a venous vessel is damaged. Blood is characterized by a cherry coloration, a slow flow from the wound by a uniform stream.
- Parenchymal hemorrhage - massive blood loss from the vessels of the internal organs( kidneys, spleen, liver).
- Capillary bleeding occurs when the arteries, small diameter veins and capillaries are damaged. The flow of blood occurs slowly by drops( a symptom of "dew") of a saturated red color. Often there is a spontaneous stop of bleeding without medical intervention.
Symptoms of bleeding from capillaries
The blood loss from the capillaries has the most favorable outcome from all types of bleeding. In the normal state of the body, the bleeding wound surface is rapidly thrombosed, which usually causes a small amount of blood to flow out. Dangerous conditions can occur under the following conditions:
First aid for bleeding
- large area of damage to the skin;
- high ambient temperature;
- bleeding disorder( hemorrhagic vasculitis, hemophilia);
- severe diseases( oncology, jaundice, sepsis, scarlet fever);
- increased blood pressure;
- hypovitaminosis( vitamin C, K).
With significant blood loss as a result of concomitant adverse factors, the following symptoms appear:
- weakness, drowsiness;
- pallor of the skin, sweat droplets;
- dryness of the oral mucosa;
- increased heart rate, decreased blood pressure;
- dizziness, pre-occlusive conditions;
- rapid breathing;
- darkening in the eyes.
With external bleeding determine the bleeding area of the body, with internal blood loss suspected pathological process can be based on the blood content of secreted fluids. In the case of pulmonary hemorrhage, rusty sputum is secreted, gastrointestinal - vomiting in the form of "coffee grounds", fecal masses of brown color, kidney - red urine.
Provision of first aid
First aid methods depend on the state of the organism, the nature of the damage, and the external conditions. Timely measures taken to stop bleeding prevent the development of undesirable consequences, promote the preservation of hemodynamics( movement of blood through the vessels), maintain the normal functioning of internal organs.
The most common method of stopping capillary bleeding is the pressure bandage. Before manipulation, it is necessary to treat the wound with a solution of hydrogen peroxide to kill pathogenic bacteria and narrow the damaged vessels. This contributes to the rapid formation of blood clots and prevents repeated bleeding when infection of the wound surface. The edges of the damaged skin area are treated with antiseptic substances: iodine, brilliant greens, fucorcin.
In case of massive bleeding from small vessels, a pressure bandage
should be applied. The application of a pressure bandage occurs in several stages.
- Raise the affected limb above the level of the heart to reduce pressure in the bleeding vessels.
- If there is a wound cavity, it is necessary to conduct its tamponade with a sterile bandage.
- Sterile wipes are applied to the surface of the damaged skin area in several layers.
- From above, sometimes put a roller of cotton wool or twisted bandage( with persistent bleeding).
- Tightly bandage limb or trunk.
Application of the
harness The tourniquet for stopping bleeding from capillaries is rarely used, it is usually used in case of a large amount of damage to the skin of the limbs and a violation of the coagulation capacity of the blood.
The medical tourniquet is fixed above the area of vascular injury, with the bleeding of the wound surface being stopped
The technique of applying the tourniquet in the first aid.
- Rubber tow is applied above the area of damage by double entangling the tape around the limb. Pulse below the plot of the bundle should not be determined.
- Under the harness, you must put a napkin or clothing of the victim to prevent trophic skin changes.
- To the rubber tape attach a sheet indicating the exact time of dressing application. The site of damage should be within sight to monitor the condition of the skin.
- The tourniquet in the warm season is imposed for 1.5-2 hours, in the cold - not more than an hour. Every 25-35 minutes, it is necessary to relax the pressure of the tape for 25-35 seconds to prevent necrosis( death) of the tissues below the site of compression.
- With proper manipulation on the limb, there should be no signs of swelling and blueing.
The patient with the harnessing must be urgently delivered to the surgical department of the medical institution for the further provision of specialized medical care. In the absence of a special bundle, you can use any improvised means: handkerchief, tie, belt, piece of fabric, which is associated with the formation of a loop. A stick or a plate is inserted into it, after which it is tightened tightly. The rest of the rules are the same as when applying a rubber harness.
Capillary bleeding is characterized by a favorable prognosis and low blood loss. Danger to life can occur in severe diseases, accompanied by low rates of blood clotting capacity. In such cases, the victim should be rushed to the hospital to provide specialized assistance.