What are the blood diseases?

Blood disorders are associated with various impairments in the number of shaped elements, their structure, dimensions or plasma properties. In medicine, the term "systemic diseases of the blood" is more accepted. It represents a broader concept and includes the pathology of organs producing erythrocytes, platelets and leukocytes( bone marrow, lymph nodes and spleen).

Prevalence among the population

The number of patients with blood diseases is not included in the "15 diseases" defined by the World Health Organization as the most common in the world.

But in Russia statistics indicate very disappointing figures: in comparison with 1990, the incidence of the population with diseases of the blood system increased 3.6-fold.

This necessitated the development of hematological studies, the search for tools to combat pathology, the additional expansion of the number of specialized beds in specialized hospitals, the training of physicians of all specialties.

From primary care physicians you need to know what clinical manifestations are associated with the pathology of blood and blood-forming organs in order to send the patient to the hematologist in time.

graph of the growth of blood diseases by years
The lower blue line reflects the growth pattern of blood diseases by years

Causes of

Many causes of changes in blood have been studied. But there are still more mysteries. Scientists believe that they have the right to indicate in such cases the risk factors.

  • acute and chronic hemorrhage lead to disorders of blood formation, increased cell disintegration in anemia;
  • mutations of the human genome under the influence of chemicals( cytostatics, antibiotics, industrial poisons), radioactive radiation;
  • a hereditary transmission of a predisposition to the disease takes place in families where blood diseases in children occur;
  • HIV infection and the Epstein-Barr virus.
It is impossible to unambiguously associate any of the causes with the disease of a particular person. Only a combination of ill-being in life situations can lead to illness.


In the International Classification of Diseases( ICD-10), more than 90 nosological units have been allocated to blood diseases.

Simplified clinical classification distinguishes 4 groups of diseases associated with one leading pathological process:

  • anemia - defined as a condition with a reduced level of hemoglobin;
  • hemorrhagic diathesis - all diseases with impaired coagulability;
  • hemoblastoses - tumor diseases of cells-sprouts from bone marrow, lymph nodes;
  • group of other pathological manifestations.

Each group is divided into many more subtypes, depending on the clinical course, the destruction of specific blast cells, the leading causes of the disease.

For information about blood diseases, it is important to consider the primary signs of the disease. Therefore, in practice, a post-syndrome classification with the selection of leading symptom-complexes is more appropriate. All the symptoms in it can be divided into general and local, which characterize the lesions of a particular organ of hematopoiesis. Many diseases have the same complaints of patients, similar clinical manifestations.

Diseases with anemic syndrome

The group includes all kinds of anemia, associated with a decrease in hemoglobin, a violation of the transfer and assimilation of oxygen and the development of tissue hypoxia( oxygen hunger).


  • headaches, which are persistent;
  • dizziness, fainting;
  • sensation of "noise in the ears";
  • shortness of breath;
  • tachycardia and stitching pain in the heart;
  • "darkening or flashing of flies" in the eyes;
  • increased fatigue;
  • reduced memory;
  • irritability, insomnia.

In elderly people, even with a moderate decrease in hemoglobin, heart failure occurs.

Specific symptoms of a specific type of anemia are not included here( perverted taste in iron deficiency anemia, icteric skin and sclera - in hemolytic or hemorrhage, with hypoplastic anemia).

Diseases with manifestation of ulcerative-necrotic changes

Yazvenno-necrotic lesion is possible with a significant decrease or disappearance of granulocyte germ of blood, leukemia.

  • sore throat;
  • disturbed swallowing process due to severe soreness;
  • drooling;
  • bouts of abdominal pain, bloating;
  • diarrhea;
  • smells from the mouth;
  • pain in the anus.

When examined, ulcers are found in the oral cavity( stomatitis), on the mucous membrane of the pharynx( sore throat), with esophagoscopy - in the esophagus, with colonoscopy - in the intestine.

So it looks like stomatitis

Diseases with hemorrhagic changes

The syndrome is caused by a decrease in the total number of platelets or their impaired function, increased vascular wall permeability, increased consumption of fibrinogen and platelets during clotting. It is characteristic for thrombocytopenic purpura, hemophilia, aplastic anemia, hemorrhagic vasculitis.


  • hemorrhages in the skin, mucous membranes( eye sclera), muscles, joints, jabs;
  • bleeding and bleeding from the nose, gums, intestines, profuse menstruation.

Diseases with enlarged lymph nodes

The syndrome is called lymphadenopathy. It is accompanied by proliferation of lymph node tissue, compression of neighboring vessels and organs. Depending on the location of the enlarged nodes, the symptoms are manifested:

  • by dyspnoea and dry cough( lymph nodes of the mediastinum);
  • "overflow" of the intestine, bloating, stool disorders( retroperitoneal and mesenteric nodes).
Cervical lipodenopathy
This is how the enlarged lymph nodes on the neck look

Diseases with a rise in body temperature

The causes of fever in blood pathology are the specific pyrogenic effect of the decay products of blood cells and tissues in the ulcerative process. It develops with hemoblastosis, lymphosarcoma.

Symptoms: prolonged fever, sweating, chills.

Diseases with severe intoxication

Intoxication is differently manifested in blood pathology:

  • general weakness - in any form is caused by anemia and cell destruction( anemia, leukemia);
  • skin itching - due to the release of histamine from blood cells, increased basophil levels( lymphogranulomatosis, myeloid leukemia), impaired microcirculation in the skin( erythremia);
  • lack of appetite, weight loss - with malignant lymphomas.
Fever in a woman
Symptoms of fever and intoxication in some diseases occur during the day, others - at night

Diseases with joint and bone pains

This sign, like osteoarthropathy syndrome, is associated with joint inflammation, a hemorrhage into the joint bag, and germination of the tumor tissue into bone tissue.


  • pains in the spine, ribs, iliac bones, skull, less often in the tubular bones of the extremities( myeloma), are more often independent of anything, amplified by effleurage;
  • radicular radiculitis pain( with lymphogranulomatosis, myeloma disease) due to germination in the nerve trunks;
  • articular pain( hemolytic anemia, lymphogranulomatosis, hemophilia);
  • swelling and redness of the joints, impaired function.

Diseases with immunodeficiency

A decrease in immunity occurs when cells are deficient, producing antibodies to their own tissues. The condition is manifested by frequent catarrhal diseases, complicated by the course of infections, pneumonia, bronchitis. On the skin any small wounds lead to the appearance of suppuration. In the kidneys inflammation causes pyelonephritis, and the autoimmune process is glomerulonephritis.

Diseases with a violation of protein content in plasma

You can also read: Leukemia cells in a blood smear Symptoms in blood cancer

An increase in the content of altered proteins( paraproteins) is observed in myeloma and Waldenstrom disease.


  • frequent headaches;
  • memory reduction;
  • numbness and pain in the limbs;
  • increased bleeding gums, tongue, nose;
  • increased blood pressure;
  • decreased vision.

Diseases with enlarged liver and spleen

Pathology is called hepato-splenomegaly. It develops with infectious mononucleosis, autoimmune hemolytic, sickle-cell and B12-deficient anemia, thrombocytopenia, acute leukemia, chronic lympho- and myeloleukemia.


  • severity or pain in the upper abdomen;
  • abdominal enlargement;
  • increasing weakness;
  • in the advanced stages of icterus of the skin.

Other syndromes are less common. Sometimes the reaction from the blood is caused by the presence of a chronic disease. To identify this at the first manifestations, the patient is asked to undergo a complete examination.

How to prevent blood diseases

For prevention, you should try to avoid all harmful factors:

  • treat any diseases and conditions accompanied by bleeding;
  • is serious about the manifestation and treatment of helminthic infestations in children and adults;
  • to complete the treatment of acute infections;
  • daily take with food enough vitamins and minerals;
  • to control radiation dose during X-ray examination, avoid staying near radiation sources;
  • to reduce contact, to use mandatory means of protection when working with paints, benzene, lead salts, pesticides and other dangerous substances;
  • strengthen immunity;
  • do not expose yourself to overcooling or overheating;
  • learn to cope with stressful situations with the least loss.

These measures normalize the process of hematopoiesis, promote the preservation of health and ability to work.