Nasal bleeding in medicine is called "epistaxis".It can be a symptom of a disease of the nose or other organ, but it is often observed in healthy people in the form of single cases. Blood from the nose can be caused by external factors, and internal.
Discharges from the nasal cavity are abundant or meager, happen occasionally or constantly, in the mornings or at night, occur suddenly by themselves or as a result of mechanical influences. Sometimes they look like blood clots. According to statistics, almost every one encountered this phenomenon at least once. It is believed that men have blood from the nose more often than women. Frequent bleeding occurs mainly in children under 10 years of age and in people over 50.
Bleeding can be:
- Primary, associated with local causes.
- Secondary, or symptomatic, caused by common processes occurring in connection with systemic diseases, acquired or congenital hemostasis disorders.
- Anterior - from the front, that is, from the nasal sinuses( the most common and less dangerous).
- Rear - from the rear. In this case, blood flows down the pharyngeal wall and enters the gastrointestinal tract or can rise along the nasolacrimal canal and flow out of the orbit. They can be obvious and hidden, happen much less often than the forelegs, but they pose a health hazard.
As already mentioned, the blood from the nose flows with diseases of the nose or other organs, but it can also go to a healthy person. In the second case, this is usually associated with overwork, stress, overheating, physical stress and so on. The most frequent cases( about 80%) are bleeding from small vessels located in the cartilaginous part of the nasal septum. Thus, epistaxis can have the following common causes:
- Damage to small blood vessels of the nasal mucosa. This can happen with dry mucous membranes: runny nose and use of local medications, inhalation of dry air. Bleeding is weak, stopping it is easy enough.
- Frequent cases can be associated with the weak musculature of the cavernous tissue, its tight attachment, poorly stretched and thin mucosa of this department. Damage to blood vessels can occur with various effects: when blowing, coughing, too much washing and wiping the face, putting on sweaters with a narrow neck. Usually, such bleeding is not intense and stops quickly.
- Sunny blow. Blood from the nose can go after a long stay in the sun. At the same time, a person feels a general weakness, his head hurts, he feels sick, hears in his ears.
- Injury of the nose. In case of injuries that usually occur with such injuries, often there is blood from the nose. In this case, there are pain and swelling at the site of the injury. With fractures of the bones, deformation of the nose is possible. In case of injuries, professional help is mandatory.
- Inflammatory processes. Such inflammations of the nasal mucosa, like sinusitis and rhinitis, are frequent causes of nosebleeds. In this case, clots of blood that appear as a result of microtraumas of weakened mucous membrane are allocated. Inflammations are accompanied by hyperthermia and headache.
- Cardiovascular diseases: atherosclerosis, congenital heart defects and acquired ones.
- Hypertension. The cause of blood from the nose can become a hypertensive crisis, in which the pressure is significantly increased and a burst of many small vessels of the nasal mucosa occurs.
- Blood diseases. With violations in the hematopoiesis system, in addition to nasal bleeding, there may be bleeding gums, frequent bruising on the body, even with minor effects, uterine bleeding. It can be such diseases as thrombocytopenic purpura, anemia, leukemia, hemorrhagic diathesis and others.
- Oncological processes. Blood from the nose can go with benign and malignant tumors in the nose. In this case, swelling and changes in the shape of the nose, the formation of a painful sore in the nose can be observed.
- Uncontrolled use of anticoagulant drugs such as warfarin, aspirin, heparin, or nasal agents that dry and irritate the mucosa.
- Avitaminosis and hypovitaminosis.
Nasal bleeding in children often happens due to the habit of picking in the nose or inserting foreign objects
Local causes include the following:
- Foreign body in nose.
- Surgical interventions.
- Picking in the nose.
- Chronic rhinitis is atrophic.
- Acute rhinitis.
- Tumors in the nose( hemangiomas, polyps, angiofibromas, as well as malignant - sarcomas, cancer).
- Curvature of nasal septum.
- Thorns on the partition.
- Nasal cavity burns are chemical, thermal, electrical.
Separately it is necessary to tell about the women bearing the child. Blood from the nose during pregnancy can have the following reasons:
- Hypertension .Nasal bleeding is associated with high blood pressure. Thus the woman complains of a headache, a nausea, a confusion of consciousness. With such bleeding during pregnancy, you should always consult a doctor.
- Hypovitaminosis .During this period, the body lacks vitamin K and calcium. Preparations of vitamins and minerals in pregnancy can not be selected independently, it should be done only by a doctor.
There are several degrees of blood loss depending on the amount of blood released:
- Minor blood loss .In this case, it is allocated from two drops to two milliliters of blood. Symptomatic, characteristic of bleeding, as a rule, is absent or weakly expressed. Such a condition does not threaten life, although children may faint due to fear. Bleeding does not last long and quickly stops.
- Easy degree .The loss of blood does not exceed 700 ml. A person complains of frequent palpitations and dizziness, his skin acquires a pale shade.
- Average .A person loses from 1000 to 1400 ml of blood. Symptom becomes pronounced. The patient experiences severe malaise and thirst, his head hurts, hears in his ears.
- Heavy .Bleeding is strong with a large loss of blood - up to 20% of the total. Hemorrhagic shock is possible.
Nasal bleeding may be associated with curvature of the nasal septum, the presence of spines on it, weakness of the vessels of the mucosa
Symptoms of bleeding
If a person is often bothered by blood from the nose, this may affect the overall condition. The more frequent such bleeding occurs and the more intense, the more symptomatic. Usually a person expresses the following complaints:
- general weakness, malaise;
- noise, ringing in the ears;
- frequent heartbeat;
- pallor of the skin;
- constant thirst.
Diagnosis is not difficult, because the main symptom is obvious. It is much more difficult to establish the cause of bleeding and to diagnose a primary disease. After the doctor stops the blood, the patient is measured blood pressure, a general blood test, a coagulogram. In some cases, a deeper examination may be required.
If blood flows from the nose, it is first necessary to stop it. It's not always possible to do it yourself. In some situations, medical care and even hospitalization may be required. In any case, after the bleeding is eliminated, a survey is needed to determine its cause. If the blood flows every day, does not stop for a long time, the blood loss is significant, while the head and fever hurts, then you need to urgently go to the hospital. Only a doctor can find out why this happens, and only he can prescribe the right treatment. Compulsory medical care is also needed if a nose injury has occurred.