Nasal bleeding is documented during life in 2/3 of the population. The nasal mucosa is abundantly covered with a vascular network. This is necessary for warming up through the nose, air to body temperature and protecting the respiratory organs from hypothermia. Capillaries are superficial, so they are easily damaged and cause slight bleeding in the common cold. But, if often there is a blood from a nose, it is an occasion to reflect on health and to visit or attend the doctor.
Symptom speaks about various diseases and injuries of the body. Therefore, repeated bleeding from the nose requires a doctor's consultation. Let's consider the most frequent reasons.
When the environment is at fault
Nasal bleeding may be a response to an unfavorable external environment:
- strained physical stress;
- overheating in the sun;
- inhalation of frost air;
- long stay in a dry room( work in "hot" shops);
- toxic effect of sharp smells of dyes, acids.
Frequent nasal bleeding is a contraindication to certain occupations( pilots, submariners, workers of ceramic and steelmaking, associated with elevated temperatures).
Symptom of hypertension
It is established that in half of cases of nasal bleeding in adults, high blood pressure is to blame. Small capillaries can not cope with a vascular crisis and are torn. The process can be considered as a "bloodletting", which the body produced for protective purposes to relieve tension from the vessels of the brain.
In pregnant women, bleeding from the nose indicates a combination of increased pressure in toxicosis and vitamin deficiency.
This cause is most typical for childhood. Injuries of the child are associated with bruises, falls, finger damage, the introduction of foreign bodies into the nasal passages. Most often, the integrity of the vessels of the anterior parts of the nose is disturbed.
At the same time, bone fractures are revealed during injuries. Then there is swelling of the tissues of the nose, pain, disruption of form. Damage can cause severe bleeding when blood runs in a stream. Medical assistance is needed for emergency indications.
Typical injury of boxers
Consequences of taking medications
Constantly taking drugs that have the ability to reduce blood clotting( Heparin, Warfarin), is necessary for patients with coronary heart disease, hypertension for the prevention of increased thrombosis. For this purpose, an individual dose is selected and the blood test for clotting is checked. But the action can intensify even food products.
In such cases, the blood goes on for a long time, drug cancellation and careful recovery of coagulation is required.
Doctors note the propensity to nosebleeds of persons who have long-term use of nasal sprays of vasoconstrictor action in the common cold. In this case, the permanent overdrying and thinning of the mucosa affects.
Use of sprays is recommended for no longer than five days.
It is in the liver that most of the clotting factors are synthesized. The defeat of the hepatic cells leads to the failure of this process. Since the most common chronic liver diseases are associated with alcoholism, this can be the cause of symptomatic nasal bleeding.
Diseases of the blood
Nasal bleeding in combination with bleeding gums, uterine bloody discharge in women are characteristic for blood diseases( aplastic anemia, leukemia, various thrombocytopenia, erythremia).Typical changes in the cellular composition of the blood are detected. Simultaneously, enlarged lymph nodes, skin rashes, changes in the spleen are determined.
A combination with abundant bruises on the skin of a child allows you to suspect hemophilia.
Benign and malignant neoplasms of nasal passages and sinuses cause mechanical damage to large vessels. Bleeding while abundant, stops only in the hospital.
To determine the cause of bleeding from the nose, an examination of the otolaryngologist is necessary.
Rhinoscopy is an introduction to the cavity of a small dilator to inspect the mucosa. In case of profuse bleeding, the sucking of mucus and blood is preliminarily used with a special tool. The doctor carefully examines the bundles of blood vessels, trying not to touch the crusts.
Rhinoscopy procedure is painless
The posterior chamber of the nasal passages is not visible in the rhinoscopy. In the diagnosis, angiography of the vessels of the carotid artery is used. Radiography of the nasal sinuses does not help to establish the source of bleeding, it is carried out with suspicion of a tumor.
In blood tests with very frequent bleeding, the symptoms of anemia( decrease in the number of erythrocytes, platelets, hemoglobin) are revealed. When associated with the effects of drugs, a long coagulation time is determined.
How to help with nosebleeds?
When there is a sudden bleeding from the nose, there's no time to reason why it arose. First aid must be provided. There are rules for this, which should not be done:
- can not be given to the victim a horizontal position;
- do not need to try to throw your head back.
This leads to ingestion of blood, ingestion in the bronchus, contributes to the violation of breathing.
Causes of an increased number of platelets in the blood
If you are near the victim:
- provide him with a relaxed sitting position of the body;Unfasten the belt, tight collar or tie for air access;
- on the bridge of the nose, put a cold compress from a kerchief moistened with water, or if possible, ice pieces;
- in the presence of the first aid kit, insert dense tampons moistened with hydrogen peroxide or vasoconstrictive drops in the nasal passages;
- if there is a possibility to measure pressure, and the crisis is registered, then fast pills should be applied( hypertensive patients with experience know about them and have them with them);
- with small bleeding during rhinitis and respiratory disease help tampons lubricated with petroleum jelly.
In the absence of effect, suspicion of injury, worsening of the condition of the victim, it is necessary to call an ambulance.
Nasal bleeding in ¼ cases is treated in a hospital. Treatment includes:
- as the first medical aid for the anterior and posterior tamponade of the nasal passages;
- concomitantly administered calcium preparations, vitamins that promote thrombus formation;
- good effect gives thermocoagulation of damaged vessels( moxibustion);
- , when a fracture is confirmed with a displacement of the septum and the bony parts of the nose, a reconstructive operation is performed;
- with prolonged bleeding associated with blood diseases requires specific therapy with high doses of hormones, cytostatics.
Treatment for chronic liver diseases is consistent with a gastroenterologist, requires a lengthy restrictive diet.
The actions with nasal bleeding show how an innocuous symptom can help to identify a common disease and start treatment in a timely manner. Constant bleeding requires examination to diagnose the exact cause.