19Feb

The norm of neutrophils in the blood of children and the causes of abnormalities

Control of the basic parameters of the blood is very important. If their level is normal, it means that the person is healthy. Particular attention is paid to children from the first days of life. The blood test is prescribed for both evaluation of the general condition and in case of suspicion of the disease.

During the general blood test, the values ​​of all important parameters are clarified, including the level of neutrophils, which are a kind of granular white blood cells( granulocytes).Their main purpose is phagocytosis, or the process of capture and absorption of solid particles. Neutrophils and lymphocytes perform an important function for the body - protective. The normal level of these cells provides reliable immunity. If neutrophils are lowered or increased, most likely, the child has a disease.

Neutrophils in the blood smear
The number of neutrophils is mandatory determined by a general analysis of blood in children

The norm in children

As is known, the norm for children differs from the norm for adults. In addition, the age of the child matters. The number of neutrophils is determined during the count of the leukocyte formula included in the clinical blood test. Determine the total number of neutrophilic granulocytes, as well as their relative value, which is expressed as a percentage. Unlike adults, in the blood of children there are immature, that is, sticks, forms, and this is the norm. In general, the number of mature( segment-nucleated) cells ranges from 16 to 70%, young - from 3 to 12% in newborns and from 1 to 5% in children, starting from the second week of life.

The content of neutrophils should be as follows:

  • in a newborn - the total quantity per one liter of blood is 1.5-8X10⁹, with segment-nucleated 45-80%, stab-3-17%;
  • in children up to one year - the total number is 1.8-8.5X10⁹, the mature - 15-45%, immature - 0.5-4%;
  • from year to 13 years - the total number is 2-6Х10⁹, mature - 35-62%, immature - 0,7-5%.

In children 13 years of age and older, the number of neutrophils approaches the norm of an adult.

Causes of elevated neutrophils

If the level of neutrophils in children exceeds the norm is insignificant, there is likely to be no cause for concern. This condition can be observed after physical activity.

If a significant and persistent increase is observed, then the child should be examined. The reasons can be different, including acute processes, malignant tumors, tissue necrosis. The reasons for increasing the level of neutrophils in adults can be read here.

Usually, neutrophilia is due to the following diseases:

  • hemolytic anemia;
  • leukemia;
  • abscesses;
  • appendicitis;
  • diabetes;
  • Acute inflammatory diseases such as tonsillitis, pneumonia, otitis media, sepsis, peritonitis, bronchitis, etc.;
  • trophic ulcers;
  • severe burns( third and fourth).

The level of these cells directly depends on the intensity of the pathological process. If neutrophils are significantly increased, rapid diagnosis and timely treatment are needed.

Carrying out ultrasound in a child
The increase in neutrophils in the blood in a child is observed in many diseases. To find out the cause, a thorough examination of

is required. The total number of neutrophils in a child can be normal, but the segmented forms are raised, that is, a shift of the leukogram to the right is observed. This may indicate the following processes in the body:

  • infectious diseases, sometimes occurring without clinical manifestations;
  • acute inflammation;
  • tumors( benign and malignant).

Reduced neutrophils

Neutropenia in a child indicates a decrease in immune defense. This condition is associated with the rapid destruction of neutrophils, with insufficient production or an incorrect distribution in the body.

The development of neutropenia is said if the child's level of these cells is below the norm and is from 1.6X10⁹ per liter and lower. The main causes of development are postponed diseases or a malfunction of the bone marrow. In the latter case, the death of neutrophils occurs, and the process of their recovery is difficult.

There are several other reasons for the low level of neutrophilic granulocytes. At the same time, they can be reduced both in quantitative and in percentage terms. The blood can be small and mature forms, and immature. It occurs in the following diseases:

  • fungal lesions;
  • disease of viral etiology: influenza, hepatitis, measles, rubella, ARVI and so on;
  • poisoning caused by exposure to chemicals;
  • happened in the recent past anaphylactic shock;
  • irradiation;
  • thyrotoxicosis;
  • acute leukemia;
  • anemia of various origins( iron deficiency, megaloblast, hypoplastic and aplastic).

Reduced neutrophils are observed after taking some medications, including glucocorticosteroids, analgesics and anticonvulsants.

If the child's neutrophils are lowered, their level remains unchanged during the first year of life and the state of health is normal, as a rule, one should not worry. The content of neutrophils will automatically return to normal, after some time.

Temperature at the child
Low neutrophil count in children is typical of common viral infections such as ARVI, influenza and other

. Low neutrophils are characteristic of congenital severe neutropenia. This disease is rare, it is caused genetically and leads to immunodeficiency.

Benign neutropenia

Infant age in children can be observed such a chronic disease as benign neutropenia of childhood, in short - CDDDV.In this condition, a significant decrease in neutrophils is found in the blood. The disease manifests itself in the first months of life and rarely lasts longer than 2 years. Symptomatology, as a rule, is absent, the child grows and develops normally, while being on the account of a pediatrician, a hematologist, an immunologist. HDDN does not require treatment and passes by itself.

Decoding of the leukocyte formula

More article: sick child Leukopenia in children

When decoding the leukogram, take into account its shift toward increasing or decreasing segment-nucleated or stab-stem cells. A shift to the left indicates an increase in the level of young forms, a shift to the right - about the rise of mature forms.

Entry into the blood of stab formations is characteristic for severe inflammation and malignant tumors. When shifting to the right, one can judge the presence of such pathologies:

  • anemia;
  • liver and kidney disease;
  • Radiation sickness.

When decoding a blood test, take into account all the indicators, and consider them together. If the lymphocytes are elevated, neutrophils are lowered, most likely the disease, for example, SARS or influenza, is already receding. If neutrophils are lowered and lymphocytes are lowered, or the lymphocytes are lower, this indicates a chronic viral infection, with the child often sick, the immunity is lowered.

In conclusion

Deviation from the normal level of neutrophils in the child does not allow talking about any particular disease. The increase reflects the presence of protection against infectious agents and inflammatory processes. If neutrophils are reduced, it means that the immune response is reduced. In any case, it is necessary to conduct an additional examination. Deviation from normal values ​​can signal serious illnesses.