Such a science as oncology deals with the fact that it studies the ways of cancer formation and growth, its symptoms and diagnostic methods, selects the necessary therapies and methods of prevention. By itself, cancer is a neoplasm of oncological nature, in other words - an abnormal development of tissue, into which the composition includes mutated cells. By the way the neoplasm develops and what its specificity can be divided tumors of malignant and benign nature. These neoplasms from epithelial tissues are called cancer, and tumors that develop from connective tissue are sarcoma.
Literally recently, the term "oncology" meant a death sentence. Even today, people are horrified when they hear such a diagnosis, because cancer is the most terrible disease. However, medicine continues to develop and today almost all cases can be cured.
Of course, many people try not to think about such a disease at all, and the chances of finding it in themselves are lower than 50 percent. For women, the risk is about 40 percent, and for men - 45. These figures can be significantly reduced if you lead a healthy lifestyle: eating and eating properly. So, even a simple lean menu, saturated with vitamins from fruits and vegetables, lack of stress, a sound sleep is a good protection against cancer cells.
Expert opinion: Actually, at the moment there are a lot of theories of cancer. Of course, and stresses, and the wrong way of life, and the wrong diet can be factors that lead to cancer, but these factors are not basic and in many people.which led a healthy lifestyle, developed cancer.
But you should always be alert, because if you find the cancer too late, it is incurable. Therefore, it is important to periodically conduct the necessary examinations and cancer screening tests. So, with the advent of such tests, mortality decreased, because the disease began to be detected even in the early stages. By itself, early diagnosis will not guarantee a full recovery, however, it will prolong life and improve its quality. Therefore, it is important to be examined regularly to avoid a serious condition and to take all the necessary tests on time, on the basis of which all the results will be based.
For people who belong to high-risk groups( predisposition of an inherited nature, contacts with carcinogens), it is important to carefully pass the tests and take the necessary tests for cancer, which are of great importance.
Analyzes for the detection of cancer - a process of identifying cancer markers, conducted in the procedure room. Oncomarkers are blood proteins that are secreted by cancer cells for cancer of specific organs. If the nature of cancer markers has changed - this indicates that the development of cancer has begun. Also, oncomarkers help to determine the possible location of the neoplasm of his character. If you focus on the total number of cancer markers in the blood, you can conclude: a malignant tumor or, benign.
If you focus on how many oncomarkers are contained in the blood, you can prevent subsequent tumor growth due to some preventive measures, and also to eliminate the primary process of the development of this disease. That is, the analyzes can allow the implementation of precise control over how the organs and systems of the human body work.
In recent years, due to the fact that people do not attach much importance to this disease, the cancer disease begins to significantly "grow young".That is, today not only old people are affected by cancer, but also young people, and worst of all, children. The reasons are obvious: alcohol abuse, smoking and malnutrition, because of which immunity weakens and the body is difficult to fight even the most simple diseases. Ecology also played a role. The cities in which we live today, both large megacities, and smaller cities, are polluted. Oncology can not appear without weighty reasons. Another of them is heredity. If among a group of relatives, even distant ones, someone has had cancer, then you are likely to have such a disease, therefore it is important to remember about periodic diagnosis and delivery of tests.
However, which analyzes should be performed and in what situations?
- 1 Fibrosigmoscopy
- 2 Colonoscopy
- 3 Pelvic examination, Pap test
This study is conducted to detect colon cancer. The examination itself is painless, and is carried out by using a probe equipped with an objective. It is connected to a video camera and equipped with a light source at the end. The probe is inserted through the anus directly into the intestine, from there it is pushed into the colon. On the screen, the doctor sees all the walls and their condition. This test allows you to detect polyps, which are outgrowths of a precancerous character, periodically bleeding. Therefore, the analysis of hidden blood or stool, which is often prescribed in this case by doctors, does not always show a reliable picture.
Expert opinion: Fibrosigmoscopy procedure is unpleasant. Often painful.
Fibrocolonoscope reveals all the precancerous formations along the colon. Test for prostate antigen( OCA).A special protein is PSA, released into the blood from the prostate gland. In prostate cancer, the level of this protein increases dramatically. Such a test-analysis must be done for every man, beginning with 50 years, from year to year. If you determine prostate cancer at a time, it will be cured in almost 80 percent of cases.
Expert opinion: Colonoscopy is an instrumental method of research, but not a test analysis.
Pelvic examination, Pap test
In addition to standard blood and urine tests, all pelvic organs are examined to identify abnormalities of the uterus and ovaries, as well as the fallopian tubes and vagina. So, expand the vagina and conduct its examination using a gynecological mirror. In addition, a Pap test is performed - a smear( scraping), which is taken from the cervix.
Expert opinion: Smear and scrapes are not the same. A smear is the taking of material from the surface of the mucous membrane. Soskob is a scraping of the epithelial cells of the mucous membrane on the definition of intracellular infection( gonorrhea, chlamydia, mycoplasmosis).
The specimen contains pieces of mucosa that is studied under a microscope for inflammations and infections, as well as cancer cells. During the use of the Pap test for the detection of cancer, the death rate from the disease decreased by 70 percent. These methods show the most accurate data for a couple of weeks after menstruation. Before conducting a checkup, two days abstain from sexual intercourse. Avoid wetting with the use of means for intimate hygiene and medication - because of them, the data will not be accurate.
Analyzes and timely diagnosis are the right way to cure a difficult disease called cancer. It is important to take care of yourself, and protect yourself from negative sources of external environment, to ensure proper nutrition and rhythm of life. So, no illnesses will be terrible.