Neutrophils are a type of blood cells such as leukocytes. Along with lymphocytes and monocytes provide protection of our body from harmful inhabitants of the environment - microbes.
It stands to reason that a decrease in the level of these cells threatens to weaken protection, and a high probability of development and spread of infection throughout the body.
As you know, the population of leukocytes is heterogeneous and includes our neutrophils, as well as lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils. Neutrophils constitute the largest group among leukocytes. In turn, granulocytes are divided into segmented and stab. Neutrophils are formed in the red bone marrow from the myeloblast. In the process of maturation, they are transformed.
It is clearly visible why the increase in immature forms is called the leftward shift
Thus, segmented granulocytes are a mature form. They have a segmented core and circulate in the blood. At a meeting with a microbe or a foreign particle, absorbing and destroying it, perish. Here are such small and heroic cells.
Myelocytes, metamyelocytes, bacilli are young and immature forms of neutrophils. It goes without saying that the population dying of infection must be replenished. Bone marrow intensively produces the young neutrophils. Their number in the blood increases, and the content of segmented lymphocytes decreases. This pattern, characteristic in the presence of an infectious-inflammatory process, is called the neutrophil shift to the left.
What is the norm and how to determine
The neutrophil content norm is denoted as a percentage of the total number of leukocytes. Segmented cells are 45-75 percent. The stab should not be more than 5 percent. There are no other immature forms in the blood. If the young neutrophil cells are detected in the blood, then the mass consumption of mature forms occurs, which implies that a serious infectious process develops in the body.
Define neutrophils in an expanded blood test.
Capillary blood from the finger of
is used for this purpose. When neutrophils are lowered
The reasons for the lowering of the level are varied. Low neutrophils can be caused by:
- a long-term inflammatory process in the body;
- by severe viral infection( measles, rubella, HIV);
- generalized fungal infection;
- parasitic agents( toxoplasmosis, malaria);
- helminths, to be more precise, the toxins released by them;
- by allergy( neutrophils are decreased after anaphylaxis);
- by the action of exogenous toxins( some poisons and chemicals);
- with some medications( chloramphenicol, zidovudine, sulfonamide antibiotics);
- hereditary pathology( Costman's syndrome);
- by radioactive irradiation;
- chemotherapy in the treatment of oncology;
- by the involvement of the bone marrow in the tumor process, including metastatic.
A condition where neutrophils are lowered is called neutropenia .
Reduction of the absolute number of neutrophilic leukocytes below 0.5 by 109 / liter is called agranulocytosis .
Neutropenia can be absolute and relative. It is important to take this into account when deciphering the results. Only the absolute number of neutrophils will be reliable. Although in most cases the content, both in percentage and in numerical equivalent, is the same.
Reduced neutrophilic leukocytes against the background of increased lymphocytes
The reasons for this condition may be that a person has recently suffered an acute viral infection or flu. Quite quickly, they will return to normal on their own. However, this combination may be a sign of the following diseases:
- lymphatic leukemia or lymphosarcoma,
This is important to take into account when diagnosing, based on clinical data.
Features of the course of the infectious process against the background of neutropenia
As noted above, neutrophils are the primary link that reacts to a foreign agent. When an infection occurs, they rush to the site of its dislocation and form a hotbed of inflammation, preventing the spread of microbes. Pus in the wound, intoxication and inflammatory syndrome - the results of the fight of neutrophils with a foreign agent.
Pus is the product of the disintegration of spent granulocytes lysing a foreign object
The disease can occur asymptomatically if a person initially has neutropenia. Subsequently, the infection will quickly spread through the body, leading to sepsis.
Neutropenia may first appear clinically:
- purulent-necrotic sore throat;
- with stomatitis and gingivitis;
- with cystitis and urethritis;
- is an asymptomatic inflammatory process with the subsequent development of osteomyelitis, abscesses and subsequently sepsis.
Patients with neutropenia are very important not to contact infectious patients. Avoid overcooling, drafts. Avoid places of congestion of a large number of people. It is necessary to prevent seasonal infectious diseases. Microbes that are absolutely safe for a person with a normal white cell content can lead to serious consequences in patients with low neutrophils.
Most often, the primary infectious process develops on mucous, in contact with the external environment( purulent angina)
How to restore the proper level of neutrophils
To increase the content of neutrophils, first of all it is necessary to determine the cause of their decrease. Most often after the transferred infection they are restored independently. Treatment is aimed at eliminating the primary factor that led to neutropenia.
Drug treatment includes several types of drugs. They are prescribed only with stable and manifest neutropenia. With moderate neutropenia, the appointment of leukopoiesis stimulants is indicated. Widely used methyluracil, Pentoxyl. Treatment is carried out under the control of an immunogram with obligatory consultation of an immunologist. If the content of neutrophils is not raised, colony-stimulating factors( filgrastim, lenograstim) are prescribed. In addition, these drugs are prescribed to patients with initially expressed agranulocytosis. Preparations of colony-stimulating factors are potent. They have a number of side effects. They are prescribed only in stationary conditions.
In any case, neutropenia requires a thorough examination to determine the cause. Treatment is carried out by experienced doctors, including a hematologist.
It is very important to identify neutropenia and to choose the right treatment tactics before the development of serious infectious complications.